Chemistry Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 5 Surface-Chemistry Part 5

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Q: 19. Give four examples of heterogeneous catalysis.

Answer:

(i) Oxidation of sulphur dioxide to form sulphur trioxide. In this reaction, Pt acts as a catalyst.

(ii) Formation of ammonia by the combination of dinitrogen and dihydrogen in the presence of finely divided iron.

This process is called the Haber’s process.

(iii) Oswald’s process: Oxidation of ammonia to nitric oxide in the presence of platinum

(iv) Hydrogenation of vegetable oils in the presence of .

Q: 20. What do you mean by activity and selectivity of catalysts?

Answer:

(A) Activity of a catalyst:

The activity of a catalyst is its ability to increase the rate of a particular reaction. Chemisorption is the main factor in deciding the activity of a catalyst. The adsorption of reactants on the catalyst surface should be neither too strong nor too weak. It should just be strong enough to make the catalyst active.

(B) Selectivity of the catalyst:

The ability of the catalyst to direct a reaction to yield a particular product is referred to as the selectivity of the catalyst. For example, by using different catalysts, we can get different products for the reaction between and .

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Q: 21. Describe some features of catalysis by zeolites.

Answer:

Zeolites are aluminosilicates that are micro-porous in nature. Zeolites have a Honeycomb-like structure, which makes them shape-selective catalysts. They have an extended 3D-network of silicates in which some silicon atoms are replaced by aluminium atoms, giving them an Al−O−Si framework. The reactions taking place in zeolites are very sensitive to the pores and cavity size of the zeolites. Zeolites are commonly used in the petrochemical industry.

Q: 22. What is shape selective catalysis?

Answer:

A catalytic reaction which depends upon the pore structure of the catalyst and on the size of the reactant and the product molecules is called shape-selective catalysis. For example, catalysis by zeolites is a shape-selective catalysis. The pore size present in the zeolites ranges from . Thus, molecules having a pore size more than this cannot enter the zeolite and undergo the reaction.

Q: 23. Explain the following terms:

(i) Electrophoresis

(ii) Coagulation

(iii) Dialysis

(iv) Tyndall effect

Answer:

(i) Electrophoresis:

The movement of colloidal particles under the influence of an applied electric field is known as electrophoresis. Positively charged particles move to the cathode, while negatively charged particles move towards the anode. As the particles reach oppositely charged electrodes, they become neutral and get coagulated.

(ii) Coagulation:

The process of settling down of colloidal particles i.e., conversion of a colloid into a precipitate is called coagulation.

(iii) Dialysis

The process of removing a dissolved substance from a colloidal solution by the means of diffusion through a membrane is known as dialysis. This process is based on the principle that ions and small molecules can pass through animal membranes unlike colloidal particles.

(iv) Tyndall effect:

When a beam of light is allowed to pass through a colloidal solution, it becomes visible like a column of light. This is known as the Tyndall effect. This phenomenon takes place as particles of colloidal dimensions scatter light in all directions.

Q: 24. Give four uses of emulsions.

Answer:

Four uses of emulsions:

(i) Cleansing action of soaps is based on the formation of emulsions.

(ii) Digestion of fats in intestines takes place by the process of emulsification.

(iii) Antiseptics and disinfectants when added to water form emulsions.

(iv) The process of emulsification is used to make medicines.