NCERT Class 10 Social Science Economics Solutions: Chapter 1 – Development Part 1

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Exercises

Question 1:

Development of a country can generally be determined by

  1. Its per capita income

  2. Its average literacy level

  3. Health status of its people

  4. All the above

Answer:

D. All the above

Question 2:

Which of the following neighboring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?

  1. Bangladesh

  2. Sri Lanka

  3. Nepal

  4. Pakistan

Answer:

B. Sri Lanka

Humand Development Index

Humand Development Index

Humand Development Index

Question 3:

Assume there are four families in country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?

  1. Rs 7500

  2. Rs 3000

  3. Rs 2000

  4. Rs 6000

Answer:

D. Rs 6000

Total Income of four families =

Total Income of three families = 4000 + 7000 + 3000 = 14000

So income of fourth family = 20000 – 14000 = 6000

Question 4:

What is the main criterion used by the World Bank classifying different countries? What are the limitation of this criterion, if any?

Answer:

Per Capita Income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries. The limitation of this criterion are:

  • It doesn’t show distribution of income.

  • It also ignores other factors such as infant mortality rate, literacy level, healthcare, etc.

Question 5:

In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

Answer:

World Bank only uses per capita income for measuring development while UNDP uses many other factors like infant mortality, healthcare facility education level which help in improving the quality of life and helps in making the citizens more productive.

Question 6:

Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

Answer:

We use averages because they are useful for comparing differing quantities of the same category. For example, to compute the per capita income of a country, averages have to be used because there are differences in the incomes of diverse people. However, there are limitations to the use of averages. This does not show distribution of thing between people. For an example, if a country has cry high per capita income then we can’t say that citizen living in that country we very rich because we are not knowing about the distribution of wealth in that country. Some people might be richer while other people are very poorer in that country.

Question 7:

Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

Answer:

No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab because, human development ranking is determined using a combination of factors such as health, education, and income So, this does r imply that per capita income is not useful Rather, per capita income is one of the development factors and cannot be neglected. The World Bank uses per capita income as the criterion for measuring development and comparing states. But this criterion has certain limitations because of which determination of Human Development Index (HDI) is done using this criterion along with some other development factors like health, education etc.

Question 8:

Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?

Answer:

The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India we electricity, coal, crude oil, cow dung and solar energy. Other possibilities fifty years from now, could include ethanol, bio-diesel nuclear energy and a better utilisation of wind energy, especially with the imminent danger of oil resources running out.

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Sources of Energy in India

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