NCERT Class 9 Economics Solutions: Chapter 3-Poverty as a Challenge Part 2

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Question 6:

Give an account of interstate disparities of poverty in India.

Answer:

The proportion of poor is not the same in every state. Though there has been a decline in poverty in every state from the early seventies, the success rate of reducing poverty has varied from state to state. In 20 states and union territories, the poverty ratio is less than the national average of 26 in others, the poverty ratios are higher than the national average. Among these, Orissa and Bihar continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratios of 47 and 43 per cent respectively. Both rural and urban poverty are quite high in these states. On the other hand, states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir and West Bengal have shown a significant decline in poverty. Public distribution of food grains, focus on human resource development, high agricultural development arid land reform measures are some of the factors responsible for the decline in poverty en these states.

Question 7:

Describe global poverty trends.

Answer:

The proportion of people in developing countries living on less than $1 per day has fallen from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001. There has been a substantial reduction in global poverty since the nineteen eighties. However, the reduction in poverty is marked with great regional differences Due to rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development, poverty declined substantially in China and Southeast Asian countries.

On the other hand, in South Asian countries (India, Pakistan. Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladeshi, and Bhutan), the decline has not been as rapid. While the ratio of poverty in Latin America has remained the same, in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty has risen from 41 percent in 1981 to 46 percent in 2001. According to the world development report of 2001, countries like Nigeria, Bangladesh and India still have a large percentage of people living under poverty. Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where officially it was non-existent earlier,

Question 8:

Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation?

Answer:

Removal of poverty has one of the major objectives of Indian developmental strategy. The current government strategy of poverty alleviation is based on two planks:

  1. Promotion of Economic Growth.

  2. Targeted Anti-poverty Programmers.

Some of the antipoverty programmers undertaken by government at present are discussed below.

Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY): Started in 1993, this programmer aims to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns.

Images for Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana

Prime Minister’S Rozgar Yojana

Images for Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana

  • Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY): Launched en 2000, this aims to create and improve basic services like primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.

  • National Food for Work programmer (NFWP): Launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country, this programmer open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desired to do manual unskilled work.

  • National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA): This act was passed in September 2005. The act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts and also one third to the proposed jobs would be reserved for women.

Question 9:

Answer the following questions briefly.

Question A:

What do you understand by human poverty?

Answer:

Human poverty is a concept that goes beyond the limited view of poverty as lack of income. It refers to the denial of political, social and economic opportunities to an individual to maintain a “reasonable” standard of living. Illiteracy, lack of job opportunities, Lack of access to proper healthcare and sanitation, caste and gender discrimination, etc., are all components of human poverty.

Question B:

Who are the poorest of the poor?

Answer:

Women, children (especially the girl child) and elder people in a poor family are regarded as the poorest of the poor because they are systematically denied equal access to resources available to the family.

Question C:

What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?

Answer:

Main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005:

  • The Act assures 100 days employment every year to every household.

  • Initially covering 200 districts, the Act would be extended later on to cover 600 districts.

  • One-third of the job are reserved for women.