NCERT Class 9 Economics Solutions: Chapter 4-Food Security in India Part 2

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NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 4: Food Security in India

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Question 8:

What his our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?


The food security is ensured in India by the Government by carefully designed food security system. This system is composed of two components

  1. Maintaining a Buffer Stock of food grains,

  2. Through the distribution of these food grains among the poorer sections of the society with the help of a Public Distribution System (POS).

In addition to the above, the Government has launched several Poverty Alleviation Programmers (PAP) that comprise a component of food security. Some of these programmes are - Mid-Day Meals, Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY), and Food-For-Work (FFW) etc.

Two schemes launched by the government to provide food security to the poor are:

  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY):

This scheme was launched in December 2000. Under this scheme one crore of the poorer among the BPL families, covered by the Public Distribution System (PDS) were identified. Twenty-five kilograms of food grains were made available to each of the eligible family at a highly subsidized rate. After about two years, the quantity was enhanced from 25 kg to 35 kg. In June 2003, and August 2004, additional 50 lakh families were added to this scheme twice. In this way about 2 crore families have been brought under the AAY.

  • Food for Work (FFW):

This programme was launched in November 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country. The main objective of this scheme is to intensify the generation of supplementary wage employment. This scheme is open to all rural poor who are willing to do unskilled labour in return of the work, the workers are supplied food grains or money as they like.

Question 9:

Why buffer stock is created by the government?


A buffer stock of food grains is created by the government so as to distribute the procured food grains in the food deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price. A buffer stock helps resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during periods of calamity.

Question 10:

Write notes on:

  1. Minimum support price

  2. Minimum Support Price (NSP) - This is the pre-announced price at which the government purchases food grams particularly, wheat and rice from the farmer in order to create a buffer stock. This price announced by the government every year before the sowing season to give incentive to the farmers to raise the production of the desired crop. The rising MSPs have raised the maintenance cost of procuring food grains by the government as well as induced farmers to divert land from production of coarse grains to the production of these crops

  3. Buffer stock

  4. Buffer Stock - It is the stock of food grains particularly, wheat and rice which the government procures through the Food Corporation of India (FCI). The (FCI) purchases these cereals directly from the farmers of those states where they are in surplus. The price of these commodities is much before the actual sowing season of these crops. The food grains thus purchased by the FCI are kept in big granaries and are called Buffer Stock. Maintaining buffer stock is a step taken by the government in order to ensure food security in the country.

  5. Issue price

  6. Issue Price - In order to help the poor strata of the society, the government provides them food grains from the buffer stock at a price much lower than the market price. This subsidized price is known as the Issue Price

  7. Fair price shops

  8. Fair Price Shops - The food grains procured by the government through FCI is distributed to the poor section of the society through ration shops. The Ration Shops are called Fair Price Shops because food grains are supplied to the poor through these shops at much reasonable and a fair price than the market price which is often high. Any family with a ration card can purchase stipulated amount of food grains, sugar, kerosene etc. every month from the nearby fair price shop.

Question 11:

What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?


There are various problem of the functioning of ration shops such as;

  • Ration cards are issued only to those people who have their proper residential addresses. Hence a large number of homeless poor fail to get ration from these shops.

  • The owner of these shops spell ration in the open market at higher prices.

  • Sometimes shopkeepers make bogus entries in the ration cards.

Question 12:

Write a note on the role of cooperatives m providing food and related items,


The cooperatives are playing an important role in food security in India, especially in the southern and western parts of the country. The cooperative societies set up shops to sell goods to the poor people at lower prices For example, out of all fair price shops operating in Tamil Nadu, nearly 94 percent are being run by the cooperatives in Delhi, Mother Dairy is providing milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled prices which are decided by the Delhi Government. Amul is another example in this regard. It has brought about the White Revolution in the country. There are many more cooperatives and also working intensively towards this direction.

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