NCERT Class 9 Geography Solutions: Physical Features of India (Contemporary India-I) Chapter 2– Part 2

Q-2. Answer the following questions briefly:

(i) What are tectonic plates?

Answer: Tectonic plates are the large plates of rock mass which constitute the lithosphere of the earth. The entire lithosphere is broken into 7 major tectonic plates:

  1. Pacific

  2. North America

  3. South America

  4. African

  5. Eurasian

  6. Antarctic

  7. Indo–Australian

These plates float independently over the magma in the inner layers of the earth. Where the plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of boundary in that region. The boundaries of the plates are typically unstable regions with some kind of tectonic activity resulting in earthquakes.

Seven major tectonic plates

Seven Tectonic Plates

Seven major tectonic plates

(ii) Which continents of today were parts of the Gondwana land?

Answer:

The ancient ‘super-continent’ known as Gondwana land was located in Southern hemisphere. Over time according to continental drift theory, it broke-up into the following parts:

  1. South America

  2. A part of Africa (south Africa including Madagascar)

  3. A part of Asia (India, Arabia, Malaya)

  4. Australia

  5. Antarctica

    Parts of the Gondwana land

    Parts of the Gondwana Land

    Parts of the Gondwana land

(iii) What is bhabar?

Answer:

The ‘Bhabar’ is that narrow belt of the plain which is enclosed with pebbles and located along with the foothills of the Shiwaliks from the Indus to the Teesta.

Bhabar a narrow belt of the plain which is enclosed with pebbles

Bhabar at the Footholds of Siwalik

Bhabar a narrow belt of the plain which is enclosed with pebbles

  • This belt is located along the numerous streams descending down the hills.

  • It is 8 to 16 kms wide.

  • It is the region at the start of the Northern Plains.

Bhabar region in purple just at the foothils of range

Bhabar Region in Purple

Bhabar region in purple just at the foothils of range

  • It comprises of pebble- studded rocks in the shape of porus beds.

  • Due to porosity of the rocks, the streams disappear and flow underground.

  • It is unsuitable for agriculture.

Stony Bhabar Region is unsuaitable for cultivation

Stony Bhabar Region

Stony Bhabar Region is unsuaitable for cultivation

Contrast this With Tarai

  • It lies to the south of the Bhabar and runs parallel.

  • It is 20 to 30 kms wide further away from the foothills.

  • It is composed of comparatively finer alluvium and is covered by forests.

  • The underground streams of the Bhabar re-emerge on the surface and give birth to marshy area.

  • Most parts of the Tarai area are reclaimed for agriculture.

  • It is followed by the Bhanger and Khadar region.

Division of Nothern plains into various regions of Bhabar, terai, bhanger and khadar

Compositions of the Nothern Plains: Bhabar, Terai, Bhanger and Khadar

Division of Nothern plains into various regions of Bhabar, terai, bhanger and khadar

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