NCERT Class 9 Geography Solutions: Physical Features of India (Contemporary India-I) Chapter 2– Part 4

Q-3. Distinguish between

  1. Converging and diverging tectonic plates.

  2. Bhangar and Khadar

  3. Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.

Answer:

(i) Converging and diverging tectonic plates.

  • According to the tectonic plate theory earth’s crust or lithosphere can be divided to 7 major plates (and several minor plates) which “float” above the molten magma of the earth. These plates meet at plate boundaries and depending on what happens at those boundaries they are known as convergent or divergent plates.

  • Two or more plates which push against each are known as ‘Converging Plates’ and when they are moving away from each other, they are called ‘Diverging Plates’.

    Convergent and divergent plates

    Convergent and Divergent Plates

    Convergent and divergent plates

  • Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries.

  • Divergent boundaries inside the ocean are formed by seafloor spreading, allowing for the formation of new ocean basin. At zones of continent-to-continent rifting, divergent boundaries may cause new ocean basin to form as the continent splits, spreads, the central rift collapses, and ocean fills the basin. Active zones of Mid-ocean ridges (e.g., Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise), and continent-to-continent rifting (such as Africa's East African Rift and Valley, Red Sea) are examples of divergent boundaries.

  • Convergent boundaries occur where two plates slide toward each other to form either a subduction zone (one plate moving underneath the other) or a continental collision. Continent-to-continent boundaries are regions where two continental convergent plates are colliding leading. In these regions if there is a collision between masses of granitic continental lithosphere; neither mass is sub-ducted; plate edges are compressed, folded, uplifted leading to formation of mountains like Himalayas and Alps

(ii) Bhangar and Khadar

The Northern Plain can be differentiated based on their age of soil into:

  1. Bhangar

  2. Khadar.

The difference between these two are mentioned below:

Difference between Bhangar and Khadar
Table dipcting the difference between Bhangar and Khadar

Bhangar

Khadar

The Bhangar soil are mostlly found in higher reaches, arround 30 meter above flood level

The Khadar soil are found in the low areas of valley

Bhangar is coarser in texture

Khadar is very fine in texture

These are the made of older alluvium or old soil. They form the largest part of Northern Plains

These are the new alluvium or new soil

Good for cultivation

Ideal for intensive agriculture

Recognized as ‘Dhaya’ in Punjab

Recognized as ‘Bet’ in Punjab

Division of Nothern plains into various regions of Bhabar, terai, bhanger and khadar

Compositions of the Nothern Plains: Bhabar, Terai, Bhanger and Khadar

Division of Nothern plains into various regions of Bhabar, terai, bhanger and khadar

Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.

Difference between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
Table noting the differences between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats

Western Ghats

Eastern Ghats

The Western Ghats are located at the western edges of Deccan Plateau parallel to the western coasts of India along the Arabian Sea. (Rann of Kachchh to Kanyakumari)

The Eastern Ghats are located at the eastern edges of Deccan Plateau parallel to the eastern coasts of India along the Bay of Bengal. (Sundarbans to Kanyakumari)

The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats.

Average elevation of Western Ghats is 900 - 1600 meters.

Average elevation if Eastern Ghats is 600 meters.

These are made form the older alluvium or old soil and form the largest part of Northern Plains

These are made from the new alluvium or new soil

Comparatively narrow

Comparatively wider

Divided into Gujarat coastal plain, Konkan coast and Malabar Coast

Divided into Coromondel coast and North Sircar coastal plains

South west monsoon highly affects it

North east monsoons affects it.

hills are continuous

hills are not continuous

Location of Eastern and Western Ghats

Eastern and Western Ghats

Location of Eastern and Western Ghats

Explore Solutions for Geography

Sign In