NCERT Class 9 Geography Solutions: Physical Features of India (Contemporary India-I) Chapter 2– Part 5

Q-4. Describe how the Himalayas were formed.

  • The Himalayas are forming because of Continental collision between the two convergent plates- Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate.

  • Note that when two continental plates converge, i.e. they are forced against each other. The plates can buckle and one plate delves under another called subduction. In case of Himalayas, northern margin of the Indian Plate is being thrust under a portion of the Eurasian Plate, lifting it and creating the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau beyond. It may have also pushed nearby parts of the Asian continent aside to the east.

    Mountains formed from continental to continental plate convergence

    Cointinental Plate to Continental Plate Convergence

    Mountains formed from continental to continental plate convergence

  • Historically, the Indian Peninsula floated from the north and finally collided with the much larger Eurasian Plate.

  • Due to collusion of plates, lighter sedimentary rocks which were accrued in the geosynclines (known as Tethys) get folded and compressed and formed the mountain systems.

  • So the earthquakes in the Himalayas have nothing to do with volcanoes, rather they are to do with this collusion between the two plates.

  • The subduction zone for the Indian-Eurasian plate collision is located lower than the Tibetan Plateau.

Himalaya formation due to convergence

Himalaya Formation Due to Convergence

Himalaya formation due to convergence

Q-5. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.

Answer:

Following are the major physiographic divisions of India:

  1. The Himalayan Mountain Wall of the north.

  2. The Northern Plains.

  3. The Peninsular Plateau.

  4. The Indian Dessert.

  5. The Coastal Plains.

  6. The Islands.

The major physiographic divisions of India

The Major Physiographic Divisions of India

The major physiographic divisions of India

Following table contrasts the reliefs of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau region:

Difference between Himayalan and Peninsular Plateau Region
Table contrasting the Himayalan and Peninsular Plateau Regions

Himalayan Region

Peninsular Plateau

The Himalayas formed by the folding process because of collision of the Indi- Australian plate with the Eurasian plate.

Peninsular Plateau formed because of breaking of Gondwana land.

Made of sedimentary rocks

Made of metamorphic rocks

Himalayas are the youngest relief in India

Peninsular Plateau are the oldest structure of the Indian subcontinent.

It has some of the highest mountains of the world

The Central Highlands in Peninsular Plateau are made of low hills.

The Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers originate from the Himalaya.

The Narmada and the Tapti rivers originate from Peninsular Plateau.

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6 Physiographic Divisions of India - Geography of India

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