NCERT Class 9 Geography Solutions: Drainage (Contemporary India-I) Chapter 3– Part 7

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Q-5. Compare the east flowing and the west flowing rivers of the peninsular plateau.


Difference between the east flowing and the west flowing rivers of the peninsular plateau are as follow:

East and West Flowing Peninsular Rivers
Contrasing the East and West Flowing Peninsular Rivers

East Flowing Peninsular Rivers

West Flowing Peninsular Rivers

The rivers which are drain into the Bay of Bengal are East Flowing Rivers

The rivers which are drain into the Arabian Sea are west Flowing Rivers

These rivers follow the natural slope of the land.

This exceptional behavior is because these rivers didn’t form valleys and instead they flow through faults (linear rift, rift valley, or trough) created due to the bending of the northern peninsula during the formation process of Himalayas.

Most of the east flowing rivers make deltas at their mouth

Since the trough through which they flow is thin and deep, these rivers enter the sea through estuaries.

Large tributary system

Because of deep troughs (their valleys) they lack a well-developed tributary system. Their tributaries are smaller in size.

These rivers flow through shallow valleys

Most of these rivers flow in troughs- deep valleys


  • The Mahanadi

  • The Godavari

  • The Krishna

  • The Cauvery


  • The Narmada

  • The Tapi

Q 6. Why are rivers important for the country’s economy?


Here are some important points why rivers are so important for the economy of country:

Uses of rivers

Economic Impact of Rivers

Uses of rivers

  • The rivers give natural fresh (sweet) water which is the basic requirement for the survival of animals and man

  • The silt deposit from rivers make the soil rich and arable so it could be easily brought under cultivation without significant labour.

  • Water from the rivers and associated canal network provide abundant source of water for both drinking, household chores and irrigation.

  • With planned dams, even water from non-perennial rivers can be used throughout the year.

  • Rivers are also used for navigation and transport providing vital lifeline for commercial activities.

  • River provide water to multitude of industries which are located along the banks of all major rivers.

  • Rivers banks were to cradle of civilization, all the economies of the world depend on their large urban centers to drive and propel economic growth. Many big metropolitan cities in the world are situated along banks of rivers. For example, Ahmedabad along Sabarmati, Delhi along Yamuna, Banaras along Ganga Calcutta along Hooghly etc.

  • Bays near the sea-shores, where the sweet water mixes freely with the salty water of the oceans- areas like salt marshes and lagoons provide a unique ecosystem which are biologically productive areas of the world.

  • Dams on rivers and even natural water falls, help in generation of hydro-electric power.

  • Some of the river basin and river shores are important tourist spots e.g. Narmada etc. The earlier course of river provide opportunities to develop sport tourism. These areas are suitable for white water rafting. Later stages of river where it becomes more stable can be used for kayaking or can be developed as picnic sports, resorts or gold courses attracting millions of tourist.

    Peaceful river and kayaking

    Kayaking Along Rivers

    Peaceful river and kayaking

    Earlier course of river is turbulant and provides oppertunities for adventure sports

    Adventure Sport of White Water Rafting

    Earlier course of river is turbulant and provides oppertunities for adventure sports

  • In India Rivers are considered scared, and therefore, many religious places like Banaras, Mathura, Allahabad, Haridwar, Rishikesh are situated along banks of rivers. Such holy cities help provide thousands of jobs.

  • Rivers provide unique eco system for development of fisheries and fishing industry, especially the fresh water fishing industry.

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