NCERT Class 9 Geography Solutions: Natural Vegetation and Wild Life (Contemporary India-I) Chapter 5– Part 2
Q-2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Define an ecosystem.
Ecosystem is community of living organisms together with the nonliving components. The living and non-living components interact with their environmental components such as air, water and mineral soil in such a way that the entire system is self-sustaining and self-sufficient. These biotic and abiotic components are connected to each other through nutrient cycles and energy flows.
All the plants and animals in an area are mutually dependent on each other and these plants and animals along with their physical environment create the ecosystem.
For example, animals in a pond ecosystem interact in the following way
(ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?
Climate is the most important factor behind distribution of plants and animals in not only India but on earth. Other factors are:
Soil: The type of vegetation depends on soil- alluvial, red soil, black soil etc. all can support specific type of vegetation.
Relief & Drainage: Water retention in soil depends on the drainage and relief. Different conditions are required for cultivation of tea, coffee, rubber or rice.
Temperature: Type of plants in a region depend on its temperature, plants in colder tundra region are very different from those found in hot and wet tropical regions.
Rainfall: Rainfall, frequency, quantity and timing changes the type of vegetation.