NCERT Class 9 Geography Solutions: Natural Vegetation and Wild Life (Contemporary India-I) Chapter 5– Part 3

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(iii) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.


  • A Biosphere Reserve is an ecosystem with plants and animals of rare scientific and natural interest.

  • Under Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme of UNESCO the bio reserve title was given in order to protect the sites, promote management, research and education in ecosystem conservation.

  • These sites include the 'sustainable use of natural resources'.

  • It also shows innovative approaches to living and working in harmony with nature.

  • There are around 500 biosphere reserves in 100 countries across the world.

    Bio-reserve in India marked in a map

    Bio-Reserve in India

    Bio-reserve in India marked in a map

(iv) Name two animals having habitat in tropical and mountain type of vegetation.



  • Tropical is vegetation is found in tropical latitudes.

  • Most tropical areas receive abundant rain the whole year round. However, some have long dry seasons for several months.

  • Madagascar dry deciduous forests, El Yunque National forest, etc. are the example of Tropical Vegetation.

  • In India, the tropical vegetation is found in north-east India (which includes the states of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya as well as the plain regions of Arunachal Pradesh).

  • Animals Found in Tropical Vegetation are:

    • Elephant

    • Deer

Tropical Vegetation animals

Tropical Vegetation Animals

Tropical Vegetation animals


  • Montane cover all land where subalpine and alpine soils would be mapped - equivalent, in general terms, to land above the 'treeline'.

  • Montane forests are generally found at the submontane zone and the subalpine zone. The exact elevation where one habitat (montane) changes to another (submontane) varies across the globe, particularly by latitude.

  • Waimea Canyon and Areas of Himalayas are examples of Montane Vegetation.

  • Animals found in Montane Vegetation are:

    • Yak

    • Snow leopard

Montane Vegetation Animals

Montane Vegetation Animals

Montane Vegetation Animals