NCERT Class 9 Geography Solutions: Natural Vegetation and Wild Life (Contemporary India-I) Chapter 5– Part 5

Q-4. Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.

Answer:

The following main vegetation are found in India

  1. Tropical Rain Forests

  2. Tropical Deciduous Forests

  3. Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs

  4. Montane Forests

  5. Mangrove Forests

Montane Forests

  • The forests in the mountainous areas are called montane forest. They are mainly found in the southern slopes of the Himalayas and at high altitudes in southern and north-eastern India.

  • The forest vegetation is strongly affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases. Dense forests are common at moderate elevations. However, as the elevation increases, the climate becomes harsher, and the plant community transitions to grasslands or tundra.

  • The common animals in Montane Forests are:

    • Kashmir stag

    • Spotted deer

    • Wild sheep

    • Jack rabbit

    • Tibetan antelope

    • Yak

    • Snow leopard

    • Squirrels

    • Shaggy horn wild ibex

    • Bear

    • Rare red panda

    • Sheep

    • Goats

    types of Vegetation found in India: 1.Tropical Rain Forests 2.Tropical Deciduous Forests 3.Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs 4.Montane Forests 5.Mangrove Forests

    Types of Vegetation Found in India

    types of Vegetation found in India: 1.Tropical Rain Forests 2.Tropical Deciduous Forests 3.Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs 4.Montane Forests 5.Mangrove Forests

Q-5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?

Answer:

Many species of plants and animals are in danger of extinction in India because:

  • The natural habitat of many plants and animals is destroyed due to large scale deforestation.

  • Illegal and uncontrolled hunting for commercial use.

  • Increased level of pollution especially soil pollution which renders the land unfit for forests. For example, acid deposits near factories, mining sites.

  • Careless cutting of forests to bring land for cultivation.

  • Introduction of alien species which destroys the natural ecosystem of a region.

    World Forest Cover in 2005 distributed by countries

    Country-Wise Forest Cover in 2005

    World Forest Cover in 2005 distributed by countries

    Area under various forest types in India in 2005

    Area Under Forest Types in India in 2005

    Area under various forest types in India in 2005

Q-6. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?

Answer:

In biodiversity rankings, India ranked at 10th position in world and at 4th position in Asia with around 47,000 different plants species.

India has 15,000 flowering plants (6% of World’s total flowering plants) and rest of are non-flowering plants such as ferns, algae and fungi.

India have 89,000 different species of animals and rich variety of Fish of fresh and, marine waters.

  • India has a variety of climatic conditions such as tropical, subtropical, desert and mountainous. With such a large number of habitats, India can support a variety of flora and fauna.

  • Different regions of India have unique physiographic conditions. For example, western and Eastern Ghats, Himalayas, the backwaters of Kerala, Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, the islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar, the central Deccan Plateau, the Thar desert and the mountainous regions of north east all offer a variety of altitudes and locations near sea or rivers and support a variety of ecosystems.

  • India has a wide variety of soil types, alluvial, red, black, khaddar, bhangra, desert soils etc. all provide unique opportunities for specific plant varieties.

  • The Monsoon system of climate provides a wide array of seasons and is unique to Indian Subcontinent. Many of the species of plants only grown and flourish in one specific season.

Plant species in India

Plant Species in India

Plant species in India

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