NCERT Class 10 History Solutions: Chapter 2 the Nationalist Movement in indo-China (India and the Contemporary World – II) Part 1

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Question 1. Write a note on:

  1. What was meant by the ‘civilising mission’ of the colonizers?

  2. Huynh Phu So.

(A) What was meant by the ‘civilising mission’ of the colonizers?

Answer:

  • The colonizer’s “civilising mission” was a majestic concealment for controlling colonies.

  • European powers had inferential that they had most advanced civilization and they want to spread it even if by force across the world, it was their humanitarian.

  • Europeans became the self-professed carriers of light to the colonies, rejecting the latter’s inherent traditions, religions and cultures as outdated.

  • Education was become “civilising” tool, but fearing retaliation, the colonizers including French in Vietnam, the British in India, doesn’t want to offer full access to the colonized people to Western education.

  • Because they know that Western education might raise awareness about democratic ideals and a desire for independence.

  • So, double standards and sheer hypocrisy had spoiled the “civilising mission”.

Huynh Phu So.

Answer:

Huynh Phu So

Huynh Phu So

Huynh Phu So

  • Huynh Phu So was a revolutionary leader and had founded Hoa Hao an anti-French movement based on this French Government had declared him as “Mad Bonze” and put in a mental asylum.

  • Huynh Phu So known for founding of Hoa Hao.

  • His simplified teachings were designed to appeal primarily to the poor and the farmers.

  • He attempted to win supporters by cutting down on rituals and complex doctrines, eschewing the use of temples.

  • In 1941 he was declared as mentally stable remarkably but was banished from Laos when a doctor who was treating him also becomes his follower.

Question 2. Explain the following:

  1. Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.

  2. The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.

  3. The governments made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the students it had expelled.

  4. Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi.

  5. Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.

    Answer:

  • The French colonial administration checks the papers according to the deliberate policy of failing students in their final year examinations so that they should not qualify for better-paid jobs.

  • Those schools were expensive so the wealthy Vietnamese only could afford enrolment in this, but from them only few students pass the school-leaving examinations.

  • So, only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.

Map of Vietnam

Map of Vietnam

Map of Vietnam

(B) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.

Answer:

  • To grow cultivation, French had built canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta under a garb to “civilize” Vietnam on a European model.

  • But actually it was an economic idea to rice production and export of rice in the international market.

Mekong delta

Mekong Delta

Mekong delta