NCERT Class 10 History Solutions: Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialization (India and the Contemporary World – II) Part 1

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Question 1. Explain the following:

  1. Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.

  2. In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.

  3. The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.

  4. The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.

(A) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.

Answer:

Spinning Jenny

Spinning Jenny

Spinning Jenny

  • Spinning Jenny had speeded up the spinning process, and consequently, reduced labour demand so women were scared about unemployment in the woolen industry.

  • Because they were depended on hand spinning so they fill peril from the new machine.

(B) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.

Answer:

  • During seventeenth century, Europe merchants had started hiring peasants and artisans within the villages because powerful trade guilds which had decreased ratio of production in urban areas.

  • These had controlled production, regulated prices and competition, and also restricted new people in the trade.

  • Monopolization was also a common approach.

  • But in this country, there were no such kinds of rules but farmers had accepted these merchants.

(C) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.

Answer:

  • The Surat port was declined till the end of eighteenth century because of power of European companies was growing more in trade with India.

  • They had secured many businesses from local courts and from the monopoly rights to trade.

    Surat Port map

    Surat Port Map

    Surat Port map

  • This resulted decline of the old ports Surat and Hoogly whence local merchants had operated.

  • Exports ratio was also got lower so the local banks were broken down.

(D) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.

Answer:

  • Gomasthas was appointed as supervise weavers in India by the East India Company because they want more direct control on the weavers, free of the existing traders and brokers in the cloth trade.

  • The gomasthas were the supervisors to examine the weavers, collected supplies and examined the quality of cloth which were exported to America.

  • They were paid servants of British East India Company and also signed bond with them.

  • They work for British Government and make sure that all management and control of the cloth industry came under the British.

  • This move had helped lot to British government to eliminate competition, controlling costs and confirming regular supplies of cotton and silk products.