NCERT Class 9 Solutions: The French Revolution (India and the Contemporary World-I) Chapter 1– Part 1

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Q-1. Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.

Answer: Followings are basic circumstances which led to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France:

Circumstances of Revolutionary protest in France are: Social, Economic, Political, Intekkectual.

Circumstances of Revolutionary Protest in France

Circumstances of Revolutionary protest in France are: Social, Economic, Political, Intekkectual.

  1. Social:

    • The social order had raised many inequalities. In 18th century French society was separated into three estates and they are:

      1. The clergy

      2. The nobility

      3. Third estates or commoners like farmers, workers, laborers, other officials and small business.

    • The taxes were paid only by the third estates whereas clergy and nobility did not have to give taxes.

  2. Economic:

    • Due to long wars including the American War of Independence, luxurious living of the king and faulty system of taxation the France became financial very weak.

    • State was forced to increase taxes to fulfill its regular expenses to maintain an army, court, running government offices and universities etc.

  3. Political

    • King of France Louis XVI was an empty headed autocrat.

       Louis XVI King of France frm 1774 to 1791

      Image of Louis XVI

      Louis XVI King of France frm 1774 to 1791

    • Louis XVI and his queen Marie Antoinette had wasted money on their expensive living and wasteful festivities.

    • High posts were frequently auctioned leading to gross incompetence in higher clergy.

    • During his rule the entire administration was corrupt and every department had its own laws.

    • The system was not uniform so it led to confusion, due to this the people were tired of such a terrible system of administration and required a change.

  4. Intellectual:

  • Frustrated, number of philosophers challenged the theory of the divine right of kings to rule during that time.

  • The started to preach a policy of sovereignty of the people and equality of all men.

  • Fires of discontent revealed the evil actions of the king and clergy.

Some other circumstances that caused revolutionary protest in France were strong middle class (which was unsatisfied), immediate cause (availability of weapons) and subsistence crisis (commoners not able to feed their families).

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