NCERT Class 9 Solutions: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution (India and the Contemporary World-I) Chapter 2– Part 1

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Q-1. What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?

Answer:

Russia was raised as enigma during 1905 and it was feared that it would breakdown due to its size.

Below are the Russia’s Social, economic and political conditions earlier to 1905:

  1. Social Conditions:

    • Russia's 85% population was dependent on the agriculture, either directly or indirectly.

    • During 1905 only few industry existed and most of them were owned privately.

    • Workers were separated based on their occupation.

    • Many travelled to cities for work opportunities in factories to escape the extreme poor conditions in the villages.

    • The farmworker community was extremely religious and did not care about the nobility. They believed that the land should be distributed amongst those who tilled it.

    Social groups according to occupation in 1905

    Groups During 1905

    Social groups according to occupation in 1905

  2. Economic Condition:

    • Before 1905 Russia faced very bad economic downturn.

    • Due to this, extreme inflation raised the price of essential goods’ even in the face of real wages decreasing by as much as 20%. This lead to the famous St. Petersburg strike which started a series of events which are together known as the 1905 Revolution.

    • There were strikes all over the country, all the universities were closed and various professionals and workers had created the Union of Unions which were demanding the establishment of a constituent assembly during this revolution.

  3. Political Condition:

  • In 1898, Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded by socialists based on Marx’s ideas.

  • This party was divided into two groups in 1903- Mensheviks and Bolsheviks.

    Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in 1903: (1) Mensheviks (2) Bolsheviks

    Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in 1903

    Russian Social Democratic Workers Party in 1903: (1) Mensheviks (2) Bolsheviks

  • Lenin the greatest thinker on socialism after Marx was the leader of Bolsheviks party which was the largest party.

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