NCERT Class 9 Solutions: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution (India and the Contemporary World-I) Chapter 2– Part 2

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Q-2. In what ways the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe before 1917?


Compared to other countries of Europe the working population in Russia was different before 1917 because of the following reasons:

  • All Russian workers not travelled from the villages to work in the industrial sector due to some of them wants to live in villages and went to work daily, to the towns.

  • They were a divided in to two groups which is known as social and professional, and this was revealed in their dress and manners also.

  • Due to more training and skill demand occupation Metal workers were the "aristocrats" of the working class.

  • Workers got united on one front strikes due to employers’ harsh behavior and improper working conditions.

  • During 1914, out of total working population 31% were women but they got less payment compared to men.

  • Some of the workers had created associations in ordered to get help in unemployment or in hard financial.

  • Around 85% of total population of Russia were prefer agriculture as their earning system during that time.

    Ratio of working population by category : 85% population worked in Agriculture and 15% in other sector before 1917

    Ratio of Working Population by Category

    Ratio of working population by category : 85% population worked in Agriculture and 15% in other sector before 1917

Q-3. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?


During 1917 the condition of Russian peoples was very poor specifically for factory workers and farmers because of Tsar Nicholas II’s autocratic government which had antagonized all people due to his corrupted and oppressive policies. And so that his autocracy collapsed in 1917.

Tsar Nicholas II the last Emperor of Russia

Image of Tsar Nicholas II

Tsar Nicholas II the last Emperor of Russia

Here are some reasons behind the miserable condition of the Russia’s working population:

  • The farmers worked hard but most part of their produce goes to landowners hand and also to the privileged classes and at that time farmers main factor was Lang Hunger. And because of this worst condition the farmers had denied to rent and even murdered landlords.

  • The condition of the workers was also very unacceptable because of they are not allowed to even form any trade unions and political parties to fight for them. Maximum number of industries were owned by the private industrialists so that many times these workers didn’t even gets the minimum fixed pays and along with this there was no limit of working ours that’s way they had to work from 12 - 15 hours a day.

  • During this time the thoughts of Karl Marx had inspired the people to raise their voice a standard revolt.

  • The 1905 revolution was came as a dress rehearsal of the revolution of 1917.

  • And participation of Tsar and defeat in the First World War shown the last straw to break the camel’s back.

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