NCERT Class 9 Solutions: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution (India and the Contemporary World-I) Chapter 2– Part 4

Q-5. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Answer:

Immediately after the October Revolution following changes are brought by the Bolsheviks:

Bolsheviks Party Meeting

Bolsheviks Party Meeting

Bolsheviks Party Meeting

  • Most of the industries and banks were nationalized because of the Bolsheviks were not in favor of any private property.

  • Land was declared social property.

  • Farmers were permitted to seize the land on which they worked.

  • The large houses in the cities were divided according to family requirements.

  • Old titles use for aristocracy was banned.

  • New uniforms was introduced by Bolsheviks for the army and officials.

  • The Bolshevik party was later named as Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik).

  • Russia became a one-party state.

  • Trade unions preserved under party control.

  • A Centralized planning was introduced for the first time based on Five Year Plans which were made.

Q-5. Write a few lines to show what you know about:

(i) Kulaks

(ii) The Duma

(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930

(iv) The Liberals

(v) Stalin’s collectivization program

Answer:

Kulaks:

  • During leadership of Stalin’s well to do farmers of Russia was known as “Kulaks”.

  • The towns of Soviet Russia were badly facing a serious problem of supplies grain during 1927-28. And Kulaks were partly blamed for this.

  • Under the leadership of Stalin the Party eliminate Kulaks to develop modern farms and run them with industrial lines.

The Duma:

  • The Tsar was permitted to establish an elected consultative Parliament during the 1905 Revolution which was known as Duma in Russia.

  • The first Duma was dismissed in 75 days by the Tsar and the second Duma was elected within three months.

  • The third Duma had covered conservative politicians.

  • Liberals and revolutionaries were not included in the Duma.

Russian Dhuma

Russian Dhuma

Russian Dhuma

Women Workers between 1900 and 1930

  • In 191, from total workers 31% was women workers in factories, but they got less paid compared than men.

  • During the February Revolution many women workers had taken parts in strikes so that 22nd February was recognized as the International Women’s Day annually.

  • The strike was announced and led by Marfa Vasileva and all the factory women workers were joined the strike and supported her. After some time men had also joined the strike and all of them moved to the streets.

The Liberals

  • After French Revolution many groups were formed with the aim to made change in society the “liberals” were one of them.

  • The liberals wanted nation with all religions tolerance and individual rights.

  • Liberals was totally opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers.

  • The main aim of Liberals group was to safeguard the rights of the individuals against governments.

  • They also opposed a representative which was elected for Parliamentary Government based on laws interpreted by a well-trained Judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.

  • They do not had faith in in universal adult franchise such as the right of every citizen to vote.

  • They believe that only men should have the right to vote and women didn’t have rights to vote.

Stalin’s collectivization program

  • The towns in Soviet Russia were facing a serious problem of grain supply during 1927-28, so the leader of the party Stalin had deeply investigate the reason behind this problem and introduced collectivization Program consequently.

Collectivization:

  • According to Collectivization all small farms would be grouped together to formulate one large massive farm which was recognized as collectives.

  • Under this collectives program science and machinery were used to rise the amount of crops they produced.

  • In 1930, 50% of all farms in the USSR had joined collectivization program and it increased and reached at 90% by 1938.

Stalin founder of Collectivization program

Stalin

Stalin founder of Collectivization program

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