NCERT Class 9 Solutions: Pastoralists in the Modern World History (India and the Contemporary World-I) Chapter 5– Part 1

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Q-1. Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?

Answer:

Nomads are those people who travelled one place to another place with all belongings as a community.”

Nomads

Nomads

Nomads

  • They move to meet their basic living requirements such as food and a livelihood for example, when the grass exhausted in particular part and the season becomes unconducive.

  • The nomadic pastoralists kept herds of goats and sheep, or camels and cattle which they would carry along with them when they move from one place to another.

  • The nomads usually moved between their summer and winter grazing grounds. They prefer to live on the low hills and the dry scrub forests in winter where pasture for their herds easily available. Also during this time the high mountains are snow covered.

  • During summer by the end of April, the nomads pack their belongings, round up their herds and start trekking towards the northern mountains.

  • The mountains were converted into lush green grass carpets as the snow melted.

    Nomadic movement in mountaneous regions

    Understanding Nomadic Movement

    Nomadic movement in mountaneous regions

Q-2. Discuss why the colonial government in India brought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists:

  1. Waste Land rules

  2. Forest Acts

  3. Criminal Tribes Act

  4. Grazing Tax

Answer:

  1. Waste Land rules

    • This law was introduced to get control on the land which was not under cultivation and the remaining land could be brought under cultivation and thereby increase land revenue.

    • Unfortunately, this rule had the effect of minimizing earlier available pastureland (grassland), making it hard to graze cattle.

  2. Forest Acts

    • These acts aimed to control commercially important forests and also for collecting some taxes from the pastoralists.

    • Due to new Forest Acts the movement of pastoralists was restricted.

    • After this laws pastoralists had to move based on the new rules at a predefined destination based on the season.

  3. Criminal Tribes Act

    • This Act aimed to force the travelling communities into settled life because the nomadic people did not have a permanent address making it difficult to collect taxes from them.

    • The image of nomadic tribes was tarnished with this Act and it also affected their relationship with farmers and other mainstream communities and hence their earning.

  4. Grazing Tax

  • Grazing Tax was introduced to extend the tax net which put new burden on the pastoralists.

  • The tax was mainly imposed on land, canal water, salt, trade goods, and animal and on grazing also.

  • To enter a grazing tract the pastoralists had to pass and pay tax.

  • Combined with the Wasteland Act, which caused reduction in grazing grounds, this law left no option but to pay taxes.

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