NCERT Class 9 Solutions: Pastoralists in the Modern World History (India and the Contemporary World-I) Chapter 6– Part 1

  • Previous

Q-1. Explain briefly what the open field system meant to rural people in eighteenth- century England.

Look at the system from the point of view of:

  1. A rich farmer

  2. A laborer

  3. A peasant woman

Answer:

An open field system is one where the common land is tilled by the community, earnings are then shared between the communities. This has been changed in modern days to closed or enclosed field system where the land parcel is owned by the farmer who tills the soils and earns the living. Major activates in England during eighth century

Major activates in England during eighth century

Major Activates in England During Eighth Century

Major activates in England during eighth century

Disadvantages of open field system in one image

Disadvantages of Open Field System

Disadvantages of open field system in one image

  1. A rich farmer

    • The rich farmer had not many benefits from open field system because

      • They couldn’t have special control of the commons.

      • He could not increase area beyond the strips which were allocated at the beginning of a year under cultivation.

  2. A laborer

    • Even though the labourer did not own land or equipment, he was able to make a decent livelihood and share in the prosperity of the land.

    • This system offers additional sources of livelihood so that it was helpful for a labourer. A labourer was allowed to hunt rabbits and catch fish for nutritious food, even in common shared land.

    • They would also get some source of livelihood through the work given by commons during off seasons when farm work was not available.

  3. A peasant woman

  • The ample (sufficient) space was provided to peasant women for collecting firewood, fruits and berries. She was also able to bring up her children with dignity and peace. He children too were able to play and prosper in shared land

Q-2. Explain briefly the factors which led to the enclosures in England.

Answer:

The cause of enclosure movement in England was the rising prices of wool in the international market and also increased demand for food grains in England.

Reason for Enclosures in England

Reason for Enclosures in England

Reason for Enclosures in England

Increase in Prices of Wool

  • During 16th century the rich farmers wanted to develop wool production in order to earn higher profits because of the price of wool in the international market increased.

  • They also wanted to improve their sheep breeds and keen on controlling large areas of land in squashed blocks to allow better upbringing of sheep. So they started building hedges around their holdings to separate their property from that of others.

Increased Demand for Grain

  • The population of England expanded rapidly from the mid-18th century and more people were started living in the cities and working in the factories.

  • Demand for food grams increased with the growth of urban population and food grain prices also rose with it.

  • Trading was disrupted due to war with France and import of grain from Europe declined, prices of food grains was also increasing in England, which causes stimulated landowners to surround land and increase areas under grain cultivation, this finally led to second enclosure movement.

Explore Solutions for History

Sign In