NCERT Class 9 Solutions: Pastoralists in the Modern World History (India and the Contemporary World-I) Chapter 6– Part 3

Q-5. What was the impact of the westward expansion of settlers in the USA?


westward expansion from 1790 to 1850

Westward Expansion From 1790 to 1850

westward expansion from 1790 to 1850

  • White Americans began to move westward after the late eighteenth century.

  • The landscape was changed in to agricultural belts after local tribes were displaced and later they got control up to the west coast.

  • The landscape of the USA was completely changed in early twentieth century and USA began to rule the world market in agricultural produce.

  • The local American Indians were thrown out of their homelands.

  • Many Indians lost their homes due to villages burnt during the war.

  • And at the end of the war white settlers had taken over the whole America.

Westward expansion of US with the movement on trails

Important Routes for Westward Migration

Westward expansion of US with the movement on trails

Q-6. What were the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mechanical harvesting machines in the USA?



  • The hard ground could be easily broken using new technology including tractors and disk ploughs, clearing vast stretches for wheat cultivation.

    Mechanical harvesting machines

    Mechanical Harvesting Machines

    Mechanical harvesting machines

  • The mechanical reaper used by Cyrus McCormick Cormic had ability to cut gourd in single day as much as five men could cut with cradles and 16 men with sickles.

  • 500 acres of wheat could be harvested in two weeks.

  • It had power driven machinery so that four men could plough, seed and harvest 2,000 to 4,000 acres of wheat in just two weeks.


  1. Unemployment

    • With the introduction of machines the big issue was unemployment because it reduced the need for labour.

  2. Unpaid Debts

    • Poor farmers had started to buy machines by taking loans from banks. The increased production lead to decrease in prices of food-grains. Due to this farmers were not able to pay loans back to the bank. So, they deserted their farms and started to look for other jobs.

  3. Dust Bowl

  • Tractors had turned the soil over and had broken the sod into dust when they were used to expand cultivation.

  • The whole region was turned into a dust bowl as time passed. Because of this, many people were blinded and choked by terrifying dust storms known as ‘black blizzards’.

  • The rivers were covered with dust and the fish died.

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