# Physics Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics Materials Devices and Simple Circuits Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2023)

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Q: 1. In an -type silicon, which of the following statement is true

(A) Electrons are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

(B) Electrons are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

(C) Holes are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants.

(D) Holes are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants.

The correct statement is “Holes are minority carriers and pentavalent atoms are the dopants” .

In an n-type silicon, the electrons are the majority carriers, while the holes are the minority carriers. An n-type semiconductor is obtained when pentavalent atoms, such as phosphorus, are doped in silicon atoms.

Q: 2. Which of the statements given in Exercise 1 is true for p-type semiconductors.

The correct statement is “Holes are majority carriers and trivalent atoms are the dopants” .

In a p-type semiconductor, is obtained when trivalent atoms, such as aluminum, are doped in silicon atoms.

Q: 3. Carbon, silicon and germanium have four valence electrons each. These are characterised by valence and conduction bands separated by energy band gap respectively equal to . Which of the following statements is true?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

The correct statement is “” .

Of the three given elements, the energy band gap of carbon is the maximum and that of germanium is the least.

The energy band gap of these elements are related as:

Q: 4. In an unbiased p-n junction, holes diffuse from the p-region to n-region because

(A) Free electrons in the n-region attract them.

(B) They move across the junction by the potential difference.

(C) Hole concentration in p-region is more as compared to n-region

(D) All the above

The correct statement is “Hole concentration in p-region is more as compared to n-region” .

The diffusion of charge carriers across a junction takes place from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. In this case, the p-region has greater concentration of holes than the n-region. Hence, in an unbiased p-n junction, holes diffuse from the p-region to the n-region.

Q: 5. When a forward bias is applied to a p-n junction, it

(A) Raised the potential barrier

(B) Reduces the majority carrier current to zero

(C) Lowers the potential barrier

(D) None of the above

The correct statement is “Lowers the potential barrier”

When a forward bias is applied to a p-n junction, it lowers the value of potential barrier. In the case of a forward bias, the potential barrier opposes the applied voltage. Hence, the potential barrier across the junction gets reduced.

Q: 6. For transistor action, which of the following statements are correct:

(A) Base, emitter and collector regions should have similar size and doping concentrations.

(B) The base region must be very thin and lightly doped.

(C) The emitter junction is forward biased and collector junction is reverse biased

(D) Both the emitter junction as well as the collector junction are forward biased

The correct statement is “The base region must be very thin and lightly doped” and “The emitter junction is forward biased and collector junction is reverse biased”

For a transistor action, the junction must be lightly doped so that the base region is very thin. Also, the emitter junction must be forward-biased and collector junction should be reverse-biased.

Q: 7. For a transistor amplifier, the voltage gain

(A) Remains constant for all frequencies

(B) Is high at high and low frequencies and constant in the middle frequency range

(C) Is low at high and low frequencies and constant at mid frequencies

(D) None of the above

The correct statement is “Is low at high and low frequencies and constant at mid frequencies” .

The voltage gain of a transistor amplifier is constant at mid frequency range only. It is low at high and low frequencies.

Q: 8. In half-wave rectification, what is the output frequency if the input frequency is . What is the output frequency of a full-wave rectifier for the same input frequency?