NCERT Class 10 Civics Solutions: Chapter: 1 Power Sharing (Democratic Politics-II) Part 1

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Question 1. What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.

Answer:

Different forms of Power sharing in modern democracies are:

Forms of Power sharing in modern democracies

Forms of Power Sharing in Modern Democracies

Forms of Power sharing in modern democracies

Horizontal Division of Power

  • Horizontal Division sharing of power among the different parts of government, for example: power sharing by the executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary.

  • In this type of power sharing all the organs of government are at the same level and have exercised different powers.

  • No any organ have unlimited power in this kind of sharing, so putting a check on each other.

Horizontal Division of Power

Horizontal Division of Power

Horizontal Division of Power

Vertical Division of Power

  • Vertical Division is a system of power sharing between governments at different levels. For example, CM at national level and Pm at state level and so on.

    Vertical Division of Power

    Vertical Division of Power

    Vertical Division of Power

  • The power (authority) is depends on level.

Division of Power among different Social Groups

  • Power can also be shared between different social groups such as religious and linguistic groups. Its best example is Belgium’s ‘Community Government’, reserved constituencies system in India.

  • This kind of power sharing was used to give minority communities a fair share in power so they do not feel alienated from the government.

Division of Power among Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Movements

  • Power was shared between different parties in the form of competition, so power does not keep on in one hand and is shared among different political parties which have totally different ideologies and social groups.

  • For example: Whenever making new labour law trade union representative were involved.

Question 2. State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.

Answer:

Prudential Reason:

  • Power sharing is best ideology to be prevented from conflict between various social groups, so power sharing is best for maintaining social harmony and peace.

  • Reservation system of India for St and SC is a best example because it allows the weaker sections to be the part of the Government.

Moral Reason:

  • Moral is a soul of democracy because democracy means the citizens also have stake in governance.

  • In India, citizens have authority to raise their voices against the policies and government decisions so government reconsiders its policies and review its decisions.

Question 3. After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.

Thomman − Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions.

Mathayi − Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisons.

Ouseph − Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.

Answer:

  • The most logical statement is Ouseph’s so it should be agreed on.

  • Power sharing is must for every society whether it is small or even does not have social divisions.

  • A democratic society means every citizens and members can participate equally in the system.

  • Power sharing is best way to avoid conflict between various groups in the society but somehow it also led to the sense of belongingness among them to the society.

  • Power sharing maintains a balance of power between various institutions and also monitors that how it is exercised.

  • In any size of country or the type of a society, people fill more satisfied when they can be part of functioning and decision making processes of the system.