NCERT Class 10 Civics Solutions: Chapter 2 Federalism (Democratic Politics-II) Part 2

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NCERT Class 10 Political Science/Civics/Civics / Polity / Civics Chapter 2: Federalism

Question 5. State any two differences between the local government before and after the constitutional amendment in 1992.

Answer:

Difference between Local governments Before 1992 and after 1992

Local governments Before 1992

Local governments After 1992

1. Elections were not held regularly and controlled by the state.

1. An independent State Election Commissions conducts elections regularly.

2. Local governments had no any powers or resources of their own.

2. The State governments shares powers and revenue with local government bodies.

Question 6. Fill in the blanks:

Since the United States is a ____________________ type of federation, all the constituent States have equal powers and States are _______________ vis-a-vis the federal government. But India is a _________________ type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the ___________________ government has more powers.

Answer:

Since the United States is a coming together type of federation, all the constituent States have equal powers and States are strong vis-a-vis the federal government. But India is a holding together type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the Central government has more powers.

Explanation:

Coming Together Federation: It involves independent states coming together on their own to form a bigger unit so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity, they can increase their security. All the constituent states have equal power and are strong vis-a-vis the federal government. For example, USA, Switzerland and Australia.

Holding Together Federation: It is a type of federation where a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent States and the national government. Central government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis the States and very often different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers. For example, India, Spain and Belgium.

Question 7. Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions.

Sangeeta: The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity.

Arman: Language-based States have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.

Harish: This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.

Answer:

Sangeeta’s reaction is correct.

  • All the language have equal status and respect which were spoken in India based on Indian Language Policy. Whereas in Sri Lanka majority of language promoted.

  • Equal status for all the language make less chances of social conflict on linguistic basis.

  • It makes administration of States easier.

Indian Languages

Indian Languages

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