NCERT Class 10 Civics Solutions: Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy (Democratic Politics-II) Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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NCERT Class 10 Political Science/Civics/Civics / Polity / Civics Chapter 7: Outcomes of Democracy

Question 4. Identify the challenges to democracy in the following descriptions. Also suggest policy/institutional mechanism to deepen democracy in the given situations:

  • Following a High Court directive a temple in Orissa that had separate entry doors for dalits and non-dalits allowed entry for all from the same door.
  • A large number of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India.
  • Following allegation of killing of three civilians in Gandwara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police, an enquiry has been ordered.


  • According to first stamen in democracy country all the people must have equal status and do not differentiate any one based on their caste.
  • Based on second statement the challenge for democracy is to provide subsidies to farmers to increase profits and have a suitable level of livelihood.
  • According to this stamen the challenge for democracy is to win trust of peoples in government arms like the police.

Question 5. In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct − democracies have successfully eliminated:

  1. Conflicts among people
  2. Economic inequalities among people
  3. Differences of opinion about how marginalized sections are to be treated
  4. The idea of political inequality

Answer: D


  • Democratic institutions set the rules of the political process and guarantee formal rights of political participation to a wide variety of citizens, but not to all of them. Many discussions of political inequality are debates about whether and how equality in democratic governance can be achieved. The coexistence of democracy with political inequality leads to the question of how realistic the idea is that all interested participants can enjoy equal influence on the governance decision or in its outcomes. A common thought is that we should seriously consider acceptable limits in who should be unequal and how to manage this inequality while still raising high the banner of democracy. This leads to a conclusion that political inequality is the shadow of democracy.

Question 6. In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:

  1. Free and fair elections
  2. Dignity of the individual
  3. Majority rule
  4. Equal treatment before law

Answer: C


A basic principle of democracy is majority rule and the protection of individual and minority rights, which are the very foundation of democratic government. It is the only reasonable decision rule that is “fair” , and does not privilege voters by letting some votes count for more or privilege an alternative by requiring fewer votes for its passing.

It is the only binary decision rule that has properties like fairness; decisiveness and is a means of organizing government and deciding public issues without taking away the basic rights and freedoms of minority groups or individuals.

Minorities, by virtue of their religion, ethnic background, geographic location, income level or as the losers in elections - are guaranteed basic human rights and contribute to their country՚s democratic institutions. The concept of democracy, in its pure and its practical forms, does indeed mean ‘majority rule’ .

Question 7. Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that

  1. Democracy and development go together
  2. Inequalities exist in democracies
  3. Inequalities do not exist under dictatorship
  4. Dictatorship is better than democracy

Answer: B


  • Even in democratic countries Inequality is still presents which can be seen in many areas such as in access of political powers.

Question 8. Read the passage below:

Nannu is a daily wage earner. He lives in Welcome Mazdoor Colony, a slum habitation in East Delhi. He lost his ration card and applied for a duplicate one in January 2004. He made several rounds to the local Food & Civil Supplies office for the next three months. But the clerks and officials would not even look at him, leave alone do his job or bother to tell him the status of his application. Ultimately, he filed an application under the Right to Information Act asking for the daily progress made on his application, names of the officials, who were supposed to act on his application and what action would be taken against these officials for their inaction. Within a week of filing application under the Right to Information Act, he was visited by an inspector from the Food Department, who informed him that the card had been made and he could collect it from the office. When Nannu went to collect his card next day, he was given a very warm treatment by the Food & Supply Officer (FSO) , who is the head of a Circle. The FSO offered him tea and requested him to withdraw his application under the Right to Information, since his work had already been done.

What does Nannu՚s example show? What impact did Nannu՚s action have on officials? Ask your parents their experiences when they approach government officials to attend to their problems.


  • Action of Nannu has affected working of officials and this example shows that officials look for all possible reasons to get free from their work because they have job security.
  • They only work when they get pressure from seniors or fear about lousing job such as happened in Nannu՚s case.

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