NCERT Class 8 CIVICS Solutions: Law and Social Justice Chapter 9 – Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question 7:

Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit


The various roles of the government we have read in this unit are

Makes law on minimum wages.

Makes law on protecting the interests of producers and consumers in the market.

Providing public facilities such as water supply, sanitation, healthcare services etc.

Enacting laws against child labour.

Enforcing laws regarding adequate safety measures for workers.

Upholding laws regarding safeguarding of the environment.

Question 8:

What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air, (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution?

Can you suggest some other measures?


The answers may vary. A sample answer is provided.

The sources of environmental pollution:


Vehicles, industries, power stations


Chemicals, latrines, industries throwing wastes


Garbage disposal, industrial effluents

Steps taken to reduce pollution are

Banning the use of dangerous and unsafe substances

Safe disposal of waste materials

Limited use of non-renewable resources

Increasing the use of renewable resources

Recycling of used materials

Curative measures to improve the quality of degraded materials.

Question 9:

How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.


The environment in earlier days was treated as a ‘free entity’ .

Industries polluted the air and water without any restrictions.

No precaution was taken to keep the environment clean.

The government paid no attention to safeguard the environment.

However, with times, the perception has changed for good. The Indian government introduced new laws to protect the environment. The government also holds the polluter responsible for damaging the environment. Several judgements have upheld the right that a healthy environment is intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to Life.

Question 10:

What do you think the famous cartoonist R. K. Laxman is trying to Convey in this cartoon?

How does it relate to the 2006 law that you read about on page 125?

R K Laxman- Malgudi Days


The cartoonist R. K. Laxman is trying to show the hypocrisy shown by people. The image shows a mother complaining about how the school is making her child suffer by carrying heavy books. However, she herself has hired a small boy as a servant to carry those heavy books, which according to her is normal.

The image also shows how we ourselves are responsible for an increase in child labour and are insensitive to the needs of others.

It relates to the 2006 law on Child Labour Prevention Act mentioned on page 123, as this law has banned children less than 14 years of age from working as domestic servants or as workers in dhabas, restaurants, tea shops, homes etc.

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