NCERT Class 8 CIVICS Solutions: Understanding Secularism Chapter 2– Part 1

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Question 1:

List the different types of religious practice that you find in your neighborhood. This could be different forms of prayer, worship of different gods, sacred sites, different kinds of religious music and singing etc. Does this indicate freedom of religious practice?

Answer:

The various types of religious practices found in my neighbourhood are

Hindus performing Puja and celebrating their various festivals.

Muslims offering Namaz.

Sikhs visiting the Gurudwara.

Christians praying in the Church.

Yes, it does implicate freedom of religious practice because many people belonging to different cultures and religions stay together and celebrate festivals.

Question 2:

Will the government intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practice infanticide? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer

Question 3:

Objectives of constitution question

Objective

Why is this important?

Example of a violation of this objective

One religious community does not dominate another.

The State does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.

That some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.

Answer:

Objectives of constitution

Objective

Why is this important?

Example of a violation of this objective

One religious community does not dominate another.

To avoid discrimination.

To protect the Fundamental Right of Freedom of Religion.

The riots against Muslims in Gujarat in 2002, triggered by Godhra train burning.

The State does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.

India is a secular country and it allows its citizens the freedom to choose whichever religion they wish to follow.

In February 2004, France banning headscarves and turbans in public places.

That some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.

It discriminates and violates the fundamental rights of the dominated members.

Also, individual freedom should be respected.

During olden times, Dalits were looked down upon and troubled by th

Question 4:

Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to different religions? What does this indicate?

Answer:

Many holidays on a school’s annual calendar pertain to different religions. This indicates that India is a secular country where religious freedom is granted to its citizens and all religions are equally respected.

Question 5:

Find out some examples of different views within the same religion.

Answer:

There are three main schools of thought in Buddhism:

1. Theravada

2. Mahayana

3. Varjayana

Let us understand each of these individually.

Theravada: In the Theravada school of thought, the Theravadians believe in self-enlightenment where they perfected themselves with morality, meditation and insight in order to gain enlightenment themselves.

When the perfectly enlightened Lord Buddha attained the stage of enlightenment, he questioned himself as to whether his fellow humans could understand his teaching or the Way of Life to get out of the suffering state of mind. He was coaxed by his followers that although not all humans can understand his teachings, there were a very few who could. Lord Buddha thus proceeded to teach these very few to attain enlightenment by themselves. This was the birth of Therava Buddhism.

Mahayanas: This school of thought believed that in their course of enlightenment, they would help others to the stage of enlightenment as well.

To attain Wisdom, you need to meditate in order to realise the true nature of things; to meditate, you need a pure state of mind, and to uphold this pure state constantly, you need to conduct yourselves morally. Therefore, morality was an important stepping stone to wisdom. Later, where morality became more focused, great compassion was generated, and the wish to help others along as one seeks enlightenment became part of Buddhism. The birth of Mahayana was born.

Varjayana: This school of thought believed that not only to bring others to enlightenment but also to have the power to do that.

The birth of Varjayana was largely due to the empowerment of the energies in the process of concentration, where you are empowered not only by the natural elements but also the linage with supreme beings.

It must be noted that Lord Buddha taught not only humans but beings of formless realms, including gods and deities.