NCERT Class 8 CIVICS Solutions: Understanding Laws Chapter 4

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Exercises

Question 1:

Write in your own words what you understand by the term the ‘rule of law’. In your response include a fictitious or real example of a violation of the rule of law.

Answer:

The Rule of Law falls under Article 14 of the Indian Constitution which guarantees equality before the law. It means that no man is above the law and that every person is subject to the jurisdiction of ordinary courts of law, irrespective of his rank and position. From a poor person to the President, be it a police constable or a collector, all is treated equally by law. The Rule of Law requires that no person should be subjected to harsh, uncivilised or arbitrary treatment.

Thus, the Indian Constitution effectively applies the Rule of Law.

Example: A minister along with some members of a company was involved in a scam. When an enquiry was conducted, the minister was discharged from the guilt, while the members of the company were charged guilty. As the minister was more powerful than the company members, he used his power to get rid of the guilty charges pressed against him. This shows a violation of the Rule of Law.

Question 2:

State two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the rule of law in India

Answer:

The two reasons why historians refute the claim that the British introduced the Rule of Law in India are

Colonial law was arbitrary, e.g. Sedition Act of 1870

Indian nationalists played a prominent role in the development of the legal sphere in British India.

Question 3:

Re-read the storyboard on how a new on domestic violence got passed. Describe in your own words the different ways in which women’s groups worked to make this happen.

Answer:

The different ways in which women worked to pass the Bill of Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act are

Women collected various complaints of victims of domestic violence.

They raised the issues of domestic violence in various forums such as campaigning.

A group of lawyers, law students and activists took overall consultations from the nation, and then took the lead in drafting the Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill.

Various meetings were held with different organisations.

Several women’s organisations made submissions of the draft to the Parliamentary Standing Committee.

The bill was introduced to the Parliament in 2002.

In December 2002, the recommendations of the Standing Committee were submitted to the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

The new bill was introduced in 2005.

After the bill was passed by both the houses, it was sent for the President’s consent.

Finally, the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act came into effect in 2006.

Question 4:

Write in your own words what you understand by the following sentence on page 44-45: They also began fighting for greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, to law as including ideas of justice.

Answer:

The line refers to the Indian nationalists feeling violated.

During their rule, the British arbitrated the Indians by introducing the Sedition Act in 1870.

The Act stated that any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without due trial.

Thus, the Indians felt the need to bring in changes to the law which were derogatory and forced upon them.

They started protesting and criticising the arbitrary use of authority by the British.

Therefore, they fought for the greater equality and wanted to change the idea of law from a set of rules that they were forced to obey, law as including ideas of justice.