NCERT Class X Science Solutions: Chapter 4 – Carbon and its Compounds Part 3

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Question 10:

Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.


Soap does not work properly when the water is hard. A soap is a sodium or potassium salt of long chain fatty acids. Hard water contains salts of calcium and magnesium. When soap is added to hard water, calcium and magnesium ions present in water displace sodium or potassium ions from the soap molecules forming an insoluble substance called scum. A lot of soap is wasted in the process.

Question 11:

What change will you observe if you test soap with litmus paper (red and blue)?


Since soap is basic in nature, it will turn red litmus blue. However, the colour of blue litmus will remain blue.

This solution shows test soap with litmus paper

Test Soap with Litmus Paper

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Question 12:

What is hydrogenation? What is its industrial application?


Hydrogenation is the process of addition of hydrogen. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are added with hydrogen in the presence of palladium and nickel catalysts to give saturated hydrocarbons.

This reaction is applied in the hydrogenation of vegetables oils, which contain long chains of unsaturated carbons.

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Question 13:

Which of the following hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions:

C2H6, C3H8, C3H6, C2H2 and CH4.


Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions. Being unsaturated hydrocarbons, C3H6 and C2H2 undergo addition reactions.

Question 14:

Give a test that can be used to differentiate chemically between butter and cooking oil.


Butter contains saturated fats. Therefore, it cannot be hydrogenated. On the other hand, oil has unsaturated fats. That is why it can be hydrogenated to saturated fats (solids).

Question 15:

Explain the mechanism of the cleaning action of soaps.


Cleansing action of soaps: The dirt present on clothes is organic in nature and insoluble in water. Therefore, it cannot be removed by only washing with water. When soap is dissolved in water, its hydrophobic ends attach themselves to the dirt and remove it from the cloth. Then, the molecules of soap arrange themselves in micelle formation and trap the dirt at the centre of the cluster. These micelles remain suspended in the water. Hence, the dust particles are easily rinsed away by water.

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Cleansing Action of Soaps

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