NCERT Class X Science Solutions: Chapter 8 – How Do Organisms Reproduce? Part 2

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Question 7:

Draw a labelled diagram of the longitudinal section of a flower.

Answer:

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Longitudinal Section of a Flower

Question 8:

What are the different methods of contraception?

Answer:

The contraceptive methods can be broadly divided into the following types:

  • Natural method: It involves avoiding the chances of meeting of sperms and ovum. In this method, the sexual act is avoided from day 10th to 17th of the menstrual cycle because during this period, ovulation is expected and therefore, the chances of fertilization are very high.

  • Barrier method: In this method, the fertilization of ovum and sperm is prevented with the help of barriers. Barriers are available for both males and females. Condoms are barriers made of thin rubber that are used to cover penis in males and vagina in females.

  • Oral contraceptives: In this method, tablets or drugs are taken orally. These contain small doses of hormones that prevent the release of eggs and thus fertilization cannot occur.

  • Implants and surgical methods: Contraceptive devices such as the loop or Copper-T are placed in uterus to prevent pregnancy. Some surgical methods can also be used to block the gamete transfer. It includes the blocking of vas deferens to prevent the transfer of sperms known as vasectomy. Similarly, fallopian tubes of the female can be blocked so that the egg will not reach the uterus known as tubectomy.

Question 9:

How are the modes for reproduction different in unicellular and multicellular organisms?

Answer:

In unicellular organisms, reproduction occurs by the division of the entire cell. The modes of reproduction in unicellular organisms can be fission, budding, etc. whereas in multicellular organisms, specialised reproductive organs are present. Therefore, they can reproduce by complex reproductive methods such as vegetative propagation, spore formation, etc. In more complex multicellular organisms such as human beings and plants, the mode of reproduction is sexual reproduction.

Question 10:

How does reproduction help in providing stability to populations of species?

Answer:

Living organisms reproduce for the continuation of a particular species. It helps in providing stability to the population of species by producing a new individual that resembles the parents. This is the reason why cats give birth to only cats or dogs give birth to only dogs. Therefore, reproduction provides stability to populations of dogs or cats or any other species.

0Question 11:

What could be the reasons for adopting contraceptive methods?

Answer:

Contraceptive methods are mainly adopted because of the following reasons:

  1. To prevent unwanted pregnancies.

  2. To control population rise or birth rate.

  3. To prevent the transfer of sexually transmitted diseases.

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