NCERT Class VIII Science Solutions: Chapter 2-Microorganisms: Friend and Foe Part 2

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Question 6:

Name the microorganisms which can fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.

Answer:

Bacteria such as rhizobium and certain blue-green algae present in the soil can fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert into usable nitrogenous compounds, which are used by plants for the synthesis of plant proteins and other compounds.

Question 7:

Write 10 lines on the usefulness of microorganisms in our lives.

Answer:

Microorganisms are too small to be seen through naked eyes. However, they are vital to plants and the environment.

Importance of microorganisms:

  • They are used in winemaking, baking, pickling and other food making processes.

  • Alcoholic fermentation by yeast is widely used in the preparation of wine and bread.

  • A bacterium lactobacillus promotes the formation of curd.

  • Microbes are used to reduce pollution.

  • They are used to increase the soil fertility by fixing the atmospheric nitrogen.

  • Microbes are also useful in preparing many medicines and antibiotics.

  • Certain microbes are also used in the biological treatment of sewage and industrial effluents.

Question 8:

Write a short paragraph on the harms caused by microorganisms.

Answer:

Microorganisms are harmful in many ways. Some of the microorganisms cause diseases in human beings, plants and animals. Such disease-causing microorganisms are called pathogens. Some microorganisms spoil food, clothing and leather. Some of the common diseases affecting humans are cholera, common cold, chicken pox and tuberculosis. Several microorganisms not only cause diseases in humans but also in animals. For example, anthrax is a dangerous human and cattle disease caused by a bacterium. Disease causing microorganisms in plants like wheat, rice, potato, sugarcane, orange, apple and others reduce the yield of crops.

Question 9:

What are antibiotics? What precautions must be taken while taking antibiotics?

Answer:

The medicines that kill or stop the growth of the disease – causing microorganisms are called antibiotics.

For example: Streptomycin, tetracycline, etc.

Following precautions must be taken while taking antibiotics:

  • Antibiotics should be taken only on the advice of a qualified doctor.

  • One must finish the course prescribed by the doctor.

  • Antibiotics must be avoided when not needed or in wrong doses.

As showing in image is a result for antibiotics

Result for Antibiotics