NCERT Class 9 Science Solutions: Chapter 7 – Diversity In Living Organisms Part 5

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Question 5:

Q. How are the criteria for deciding divisions in plants different from the criteria for deciding the subgroups among animals?


Criteria for deciding divisions in plants are:

(i) Differentiated/ Undifferentiated plant body

(ii)Presence/ absence of vascular tissues

(iii)With/ without seeds

(iv)Naked seeds/seeds inside fruits

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Criteria for Deciding Divisions in Plants

Criteria for deciding subgroups among animals are:

Kingdom Animalia is divided into two major groups on the basis of the presence or absence of a notochord.

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Criteria for Deciding Subgroups Among Animals

Non-chordates do not possess a notochord, while all members of the phylum chordates possess a notochord.

Non-chordate is further divided into subgroups on the basis of the following features:

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Non-Chordate is Further Divided into Subgroups

On the basis of the above features, non-chordates are divided into the following subgroups: Porifera, Coelenterate, Plathyhelminthes, Nematodes, Annelids, Molluscs, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata.

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Division of Non-Chordates

All members of the phylum chordate possess a notochord. However, some animals such as Balangossus, Amphioxus, Herdmania, etc. have a notochord, which is either absent or does not run the entire length of the animals body. Therefore, these animals are kept in a separate sub-phylum called Protochordata, and the rest of the chordates are included in the sub-phylum vertebrata. The members of the sub-phylum vertebrata are advanced chordates. They are divided into five classes: Pisces, Amphibian, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia.

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Phylum Chordate Possess a Notochord