Class 6 Civics Chapter 2 Diversity and Discrimination, Prejudice, Inequality and Discrimination (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Diversity and Discrimination

Difference between Diversity and Discrimination

  • Diversity means one individual is different from the other. The differences among people may exist in the form of religion, language, eating habits, etc.
  • Discrimination on the other hand simply means when an individual gets badly treated by the other individual as the former is different from the later in some way or the other. It has different forms like racism, sexism, homophobia, fat phobia, ageism, ableism.
  • Oppression is a form of discrimination that can be used to take over the power from an individual or a group of people.


  • These are irrational attitudes and opinions held by members of one group towards another.
  • It is a strong unreasonable feeling of not liking or trusting somebody unreasonable feeling of not liking or trusting somebody.
  • Differences may exist in terms of facial features, accent, eating habit or costumes.
  • Prejudices can be harmless as well as harmful.
  • Some types of prejudice include:
    • Racist prejudices
    • Sexist prejudices
    • Ageist prejudices
    • Ableist prejudices
    • Anti-LGBTQ + prejudice

Prejudices Because of Diversity

  • Person belonging to rural areas are considered to be illiterate and unsophisticated.
  • Persons belonging to urban areas are considered to be not that well behaved, greedy, and cunning.
  • There have been several incidents where people coming from North East have been looked down and harassed in cities like Delhi, Bangalore, etc.

Solutions to Prejudice

Self-Esteem Hypothesis

People should be properly educated and higher self-esteemed.

Cooperation Hypothesis

Shared goals should exist among conflicting group by laying aside their individual interests.

Contact Hypothesis

People belonging to different groups should come together to learn and appreciate one another՚s common experiences and backgrounds.

Legal Hypothesis

This means enforcement of the laws against discriminative behavior.


  • It is defined as the pre-imagination about a person or a fixed idea about a particular type of person or thing.
  • Most often the pre-imagination is not actually true.
  • They may exist in multiple forms:
    • Gender-based stereotypes.
    • Religion based stereotypes.
    • Caste and place of origin.

Examples of Stereotypes

  • Girls are supposed to be soft spoken whereas boys are supposed to be aggressive and naughty.
  • Girls are not good at sports whereas boys are quite stronger and do all the hardwork.
  • All teenagers are rebels.
  • All children don՚t enjoy healthy food.
Solutions to Stereotypes
  • Growing one՚s mindset.
  • Expand one՚s professional networks.
  • Developing leadership-development programs.
  • Educating employees how stereotypes affect decisions.

Inequality and Discrimination

Gender-Based Discrimination

Forcing girls for marriage and not allowing them to study or select a career of their choice.

Religion-Based Discrimination

Just because a person belongs to some particular religion, he/she is not allowed to enter some public places; especially the places of worship.

Caste-Based Discrimination

  • It has origins in ancient India.
  • People were kept under different castes.
  • People belonging to certain caste were subjected to do a particular work only and were not entitled to get education.
  • People belonging to Mahar caste suffer different types of discrimination.
  • The son of a potter could only become a potter.
  • Only a Brahmin could perform religious rituals.

Social Factors Identified by Social Scientists Contributing Towards Prejudice and Discrimination

Social Factors Identified by Social Scientists


  • Certain prejudices may get passed from parents to children.
  • Some times media sources also perpetuate demeaning narrative about assorted groups for e. g. , ethnic minorities.

Conforming Behaviours

  • Prejudices may help in gathering support from others.
  • The social support may be lost due to rejecting prejudices.

Economic Benefits

  • There is a rise in prejudice due to the groups in direct competition for jobs.
  • It has been observed that during economic and social stress, there is a dramatic increase in prejudice.

Authoritarian Personality

  • Such people have projection based on unconscious fears.
  • They reject people they consider to be inferiors.


  • Evaluating others ′ cultures by one ′ s own cultural norms and values.
  • The ethnocentric tendencies involve stereotypical thinking.

Group Closure

  • Creating and keeping boundaries by certain groups with that of the others.
  • One of the examples is that of refusing to marry outside an ethnic group.

Conflict Theory

  • Holding distinctive social status, power, and possessions by the privileged groups.
  • This may result in extreme acts of violence against others to protect their interests.

Equality in Indian Democracy

  • The Constitution of India recognizes every person as equal.
  • Person belonging to any caste, religion, tribe, economic or educational background is equal.

Article 14 of the Constitution

  • It guarantees that all people shall be equally protected by the laws of the country.
  • It further means people will be treated alike in the same circumstances.

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