Class 6 Civics Chapter 3 What is Government, Need of a Government, Levels of a Government, Forms of a Government (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Government

Introduction

  • It is defined as the system or group of people governing an organized community generally a state.
  • In other words, one can say that government is the system to govern a state or community.
  • It normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary.
  • The organizational policies are enforced apart from determining policy.

Need of a Government

  • For making decisions and getting things done.
  • Decisions are taken on various matters related to:
    • Building roads, schools, and railway lines.
    • Improve the public healthcare system.
    • Improve the supply of drinking water.
    • Helping the needy people.
    • Solving conflicts between two social groups.
  • To protect the boundaries of the country.
  • To maintain cordial relations with other countries.
  • During disaster situations, relief operations are carried out by the govt. to help affected people.
  • Maintaining rules and regulations is an important task of govt. to make sure that people live in harmony.

Levels of Government

Centre Level or National Level

  • It looks after the matters related to national interest being the supreme level of government.
  • The Central Govt. of India operates from New Delhi and is headed by the Prime Minister.

State Level

  • Govt. at state level is headed by the Chief Minister of that state.
  • It looks after the matters related to state subjects.

District Level

Government officials also known as civil servants look after the various issues and programmes.

Village Level

  • At the village level the form of govt. is Gram Panchayat.
  • Matters related to local interests are looked after at this level.

Forms of Government

Monarchy

  • In this form of govt. , the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication.
  • A monarchy can be a polity through:
    • Unity
    • Personal Union
    • Vassalage or federation
  • Monarchs can carry various titles such as:
    • Emperor
    • King
    • Queen
    • Raja
    • Khan
    • Caliph
    • Tsar
    • Sultan
    • Shah
    • Pharaoh
  • The succession of monarchies is hereditary in most of the cases.

Aristocracy

  • In this form of govt. strengths lie in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class known as the aristocrats.
  • Aristocrat has been derived from the Greek word aristokratia which means ‘rule of the best’ .
  • In modern times, aristocracy was usually seen as:
    • Rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class.
    • Contrasted with democracy.

Democracy

  • In this form of govt. people enjoy the authority to choose their governing legislators.
  • Direct and Representative are the two current types of democracy.
  • Direct democracy:
    • People decide on policy initiatives directly.
    • Differs from the majority of currently established democracies.
  • Representatives administer day-to-day governance in Semi-direct democracies but citizens remain the sovereign.
  • Representative democracy:
    • The people elect representatives.
    • To deliberate and decide on legislation.
      • Such as in parliamentary or presidential democracy.
Parliamentary Democracy
  • It is a system of democratic governance of a state.
  • It is headed by a person distinct from the head of government.
  • Here the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability w. r. t commanding the confidence of the legislature.
  • Countries with such a system include India, Japan, Germany, etc.
Presidential Democracy
  • It is a single executive system.
  • The head of the govt. leads an executive branch being separated from the legislative branch.
  • In most of the cases, the head of government is also the head of the state.
  • Countries with such a system include the United States, South Korea, etc.

Oligarchy

  • It means ‘to rule or to command’ .
  • In this for of govt. the power rests with a small number of people.
  • The people may or may not be distinguished by one or several characteristics which include nobility, celebrity, wealth, education, corporate, religious, political, or military control.
  • This term was pioneered by Aristotle as meaning rule by the rich.

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