Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Rural Livelihood, Introduction, Different Occupations, Farming, Market and Debt Situation (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Rural Livelihood

Introduction

  • People living in rural areas earn their livelihoods through various means.
  • They undertake both farming and non-farming activities.
  • Agriculture is the main occupation for most of the people.
  • It becomes challenging for most small farmers, agricultural labourers, crafts persons, etc. to keep them employed throughout the year.
Rural Development Integrated Framework

Different Occupations

  • Blacksmiths
  • Teachers
  • Washerman
  • Weavers
  • Mechanics
  • Barbers
  • Shopkeepers and traders

Other Occupations

  • Medicine shops
  • Cycle repair shops
  • Cloth shops
  • Small eateries
  • Carpentry, etc.

Farming in Rural Areas

  • Employment is on a seasonal basis.
  • Farmers are at work only during a certain part or months of the year.
  • Availability of work is during:
    • Ploughing
    • Sowing
    • Weeding
    • Harvesting

Big Landlords

  • Small number of farmers who own a major portion of farmland in a village.
  • Most of them sell their farm produce in the market apart from the procuring for the family needs.
  • Related businesses such as flour mill, shops for fertilizers, seeds are also carried out by them.
  • These landlords hire labourers for various works.
  • Equipment such as tractors and threshers are also being put on rent by these landlords.

Small Farmers

  • These famers farm produce is just enough to meet the family needs.
  • Apart from working on their fields these farmers also work on others՚ farms for sustaining their income.

Landless Farmers

  • Most of the villages in India have many landless farmers.
  • These famers usually work on others՚ farms.
  • They don՚t earn too much and therefore family members of such farmers are engaged in their manual work.

Terrace Farming

  • The land on a hill slope is made into flat plots and carved out in a step-by-step manner.
  • To retain water, the sides of each plot are raised allowing the water to stand in the field and hence becomes suitable for rice cultivation.
  • Terraces reduce the amount and velocity of water moving across the soil surface as well.

Market Situation for Farm Produce

  • Farmers have to sell their produce at lower prices particularly during the harvest season.
  • Also, sometimes it has been observed that it is the middleman who forces the farmers to sell their produce at cheaper rates.
  • Lack of proper storage facilities is another main reason for selling farm produce at lower prices.
  • Farmers are helped by the government through MSP or Minimum Support Price during harvest season. FCI buys the farm produce at MSP during the harvest season.

Situation of Debt in Rural Areas

  • Unlike big farmers small farmers don՚t get loan from the bank easily.
  • Requirement of loan is for buying farm inputs; like seeds, fertilizers, and farm equipment.
  • If small farmers take loan from the moneylenders and landlords, the interest rate is very high and they are likely to fall into the debt trap.
  • Situation becomes worst for the farmers if natural calamities destroy the crops.

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