NCERT Class 10 Economics Chapter 1: Development Complete Notes Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Growth Versus Development

  • Economic Growth - Increase in real national income/national output.
  • Economic Development - Improvement in quality of life and living standards, e. g. measures of literacy, life-expectancy and health care
  • Development – Directional growth
  • Present is governed by past
  • Different people have different developmental goals
  • What is development for one might not be development for another

let՚s understand the different between growth and development. When we say growth we talk about increase in the net or the real national income and national output, however when we talk about development it՚s not merely increase in the national income but it is much beyond the increase in the national income so it talks about the quality of life the living standard that could be measured in terms of the literacy levels, the per capita income and the health care.

Now in simple word if I say about development we can say development is a kind of directional growth that means we are growing but we are providing a direction to the growth that means our aim for this growth is providing literacy to growth, providing good health care facilities, providing a kind of basic medical facility, improving the life expectancy of the residents so all those are kind of directional growth. Development if includes a kind of directional growth we say the development is useful or beneficial.

Now since generations we have been talking about presents is a key to past. Based on the past developments or the past growth that has taken place, the present status or the present idea of development could be demarcated. We can say that these are the American continents and then we have Africa, India and so on explained on the map. What happens here if you look on to the past trends we can see Africa was amongst the less developed nations in comparison to America that means that past has been trending better for the present growth or the present development in the region. So there is a higher development in this region, this region would prosper much better as compared to the prosperity in Africa because you had a kind of better start or good start that was available for this region. This explains how present is governed by the past. Again for different people there are different development goals that are set up that means what is development for me, might not be development for you or what is development for you might not be development for me.

Development Goals

Table Shows Category & Development Goals
Landless laborerMore wages, more days of work
Prosperous FarmerHigher income
Urban unemployed youthEmployment
Adivasi (tribal)Education, rising socio-economic status, equality, land ownership
GirlFreedom, equal opportunity, education at par

let՚s say there is a landless labor what could be development, development would be earning more wages or getting more days of work or a very high to get a kind of permanent employment, so that is a kind of development from the perspective of the landless labor. From the perspective of a prosperous farmer, it could be gaining more income, bringing in more technology into the farms, getting in more prosperity.

For an urban unemployed youth, the development could be getting a good decent employment.

For a tribal, development goal could be getting good education and having rising socio-economic status or equality or land ownership. For a girl child the development could be freedom in terms of equal opportunity education, at parity or in terms of better freedom or higher freedom levels.

Development – Mixed Goals

  • More income
  • Freedom
  • Equal treatment
  • Security
  • Respect of others
  • Safe environment

Now development as we said is a mixed goal that means improving the income levels, getting more freedom having better treatment or social equality, social inclusion, security, respect for other and kind of safe environment so these are the some of the basic or mixed goals that talk about our defined development.

National Development

  • Ability of a nation to improve the lives of its citizens.
  • Measures of improvement can be increase in GDP, or social aspects like literacy rates, availability of healthcare etc.
  • Income growth
  • Poverty alleviation
  • Satisfaction of social and economic needs
  • Sustainment of democratic and participatory society

When we talk about development of a nation or our basic ideas is to improve the life of the citizens of that nation so what can we talk about net GDP of this state in the nation, we can talk about parameters like literacy rate, parameters like health care health index, life expectancy, socio-economic development. So these are some of the parameters that we would consider when we talk about national development along with this we will focus on the personal income and growth in income, removal of poverty, satisfaction of socio-economic needs, attainment of a democratic and participatory society. So these are some of the national goals.

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