NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 1: Story of Village Palampur Economy Completes Notes Part 2

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Story of Village Palanpur

Land

  • Fixed & Scarce – 75% in Farming – No Expansion; Wasteland to Cultivable Land

  • 1 hectare = 100 sq. meter, also in bigha, guintha

  • Grow More – Rainy Season – Jowar & bajra – Kharif; Winter –rabi –Wheat – Sowed; Oct-Dec - Potato (3 Crops due to Irrigation – Persian Wheel, Tubewells) – MULTIPLE CROPPING – HYV seeds, fertilizers & pesticides; traditional farming – cow dung as manure

  • Land – Sustain: Deplete water table; chemical fertilizers harm fauna; highest consumption of chemical fertilizer in Punjab

  • Land Distribution: Small scattered plots

Chart shows Cultivation Area and Number of Farmers

Chart Shows Cultivation Area and Number of Farmers

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Land is the key aspect as we discussed it is a fixed and a scare commodity. Now in India villages you have 75% which is occupied in farming so there is no scope for expansion the only thing that you can do is convert the wasteland into commercial lands or the cultivable lands. Land units are in Bigha and Guitha. Now what is the key aspects you have fixed amount of land that is available what I can do is rather than cropping just a single crop throughout the year we can go for multiple cropping, so multiple cropping would definitely have a best utilization for life and you can have crops except rainy season as well.

So you could have Kharif crop, rabi crop in winter and intermediate crop, that would be one way of utilizing this land at an optimum level. The next sense is using good fertilizers, good seeds rather than focusing on the kind of inputs that you are using. You need to improve the mechanism for the growth so all those methods that would increase the productivity would be helpful to use this land optimally. Now see into India scenario, you have small farmers which account 36% of the area with 80% of the farmers, however only 20% of the big farmers have 64% of the land area that means most of the land parcel in India are fragmented. Since there are such fragmented parcel the only mechanism is intensive cropping and you cannot bring in huge machinery tractors on small parcels of land. Again there is major issue which is scattered lands so you have small plots, they are being divided generation after generation.

We need to sustain the land and how we can sustain the land is we need to check on the chemical fertilizers that are used so rather than using chemical fertilizers which can harm the wild life and the plant life, we can go for traditional farming. Example of traditional farming would include cow dung as manure, then you have use of biogas. The highest consumption chemical fertilizer is recorded in Punjab another important concern for land is the depleting or the decreasing water table.

The next is labor.

Labour

  • Abundant

  • Hard Work & Manual Input

  • Tractors for Ploughing

  • Harvesters for Harvesting

  • Threshers for Threshing

  • Wages – Cash/Kind/Meals

  • Problem with landless farm labourer – Employment (Daily/Seasonal)

The rural areas have abundant labor but the key problem being most of the labor is landless. For cropping season or for agriculture you require kind of seasonal labor so it’s a kind of seasonal employment. It requires really hard work and manual input however nowadays you have mechanization that is come into way by means of Tractors for Ploughing, Harvesters for Harvesting, Threshers for Threshing. However the main key aspects is a labor which is an abundant and must be utilized optimally but what does labor get in turn of its effort that is putting?

So labor gets wages we also call it as salaries in common language and the labor gets the pay in turn of the amount of effort that it puts in. This wage can be in form of cash, that is money, it can be in form of kind like giving some articles which are useful to the laborer or it could be in form of meals providing them daily food. The key problem in India is the problem with landless labor farm. Labourer who do not own land and they are employed only either on the seasonal basis or a daily basics.