NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 2: People As Resource Complete Notes Part 4

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People as Resources

Quality of Population – Health

  • Accessibility

  • Family care

  • Nutrition

  • IMR & MMR – Protection from infection, nutrition, vaccination

  • Life Expectancy

  • Longetivity

  • Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra – Surpass

  • Free medical care

  • National Rural Health Mission

Now the next is quality of population with health parameter. When it comes to health, it is important if a person is not healthy, he or she cannot be productive for the society that means health itself brings in accessibility. It improves the family care, it brings in better nutrition, better awareness and try to give importance of fresh water, good water, clean water for daily drinking, good sanitation facilities. All of these are part of kind of social change that are involved with the health parameters.

Now the basic breakthrough that we have achieved under health is decrease in the Infant mortality rate (IMR) and the maternal mortality rate (MMR). Infant mortality rate has decrease significantly through the process of vaccination, better nutrition facilities, and protection from infection. This increases the life expectancy and the longevity of the people. Now some of the states really surpass healthcare like Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. However there are states like Bihar and Uttar Pradesh which are severely behind in the health care facilities in the nation.

Now we have also started the free medical facilities and the free medicines that are available through the government hospitals and many of the parts of the nation. You have National Rural Health Mission which focuses on promoting good doctors into rural areas and to increase the healthcare and the quality.

Types of Unemployment

  • Frictional – laid off from job, change job, take time off

  • Structural – Skill not match the job – technological advancement

  • Cyclic – Economic downturns & falls

  • Seasonal – Based on production schedules

The next important thing that we need to understand is to provide a good quality education is a good employment opportunity. There has been a significant lag into the employment system and we can classify for different types of unemployment that exists in the society.

The first is a kind of frictional unemployment, that is moving from one to another so it can be due to being laid off from the job, it can be due to change in a job structure or change in a work profile. People start switching companies, there can be kind of take off time, there is a kind of break period where one person switches from one job to another job and takes a break, intermittent break of two or three months and so all those are kind of frictional unemployment.

Then there is structural unemployment, that says the skill is not sufficient to match the job profile. For example, with the technological advancement if a person is not technology savvy, he or she might not be able to match the job profile that is available, so there can be kind of structural unemployment that exists.

Cyclic unemployment talks about the economic cycle, cycle of recession and kind of the cycle that goes on rise and fall, so you have Economic downturns & falls that come and that lead to significant rise in the unemployment in a region.

Then you have season unemployment that is based on production schedules commonly seen in the agricultural societies. What happens is during the month of sowing or harvesting, you would have to employ large number of people, however during the months where the crop is growing by itself there is not much requirement for the labor and kind of seasonal unemployment occurs.