NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 3: Poverty as a Challenge Economy Completes Notes Part 4 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Poverty as a Challenge

Poverty – Global Scenario

  • Decrease from 28 % in 1990 to 21 % in 2001
  • in China & SE Asia – Economic growth & investment in HRD
  • In China – 606 million (1991) to 212 (2001)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa - from 41 % in 1981 to 46 % in 2001
  • MDGs - people on les than $ 1 to half from 1990 to 2015

If we look on to global scenario again there has been declined from 28 % to the nearly 1 % in 2001 however China, Southeast Asia are the worst affected states but these states are again these stations are again doing better because of the economic growth and more investment in human resource development in china alone there has been declining by nearly 1/3 so you have a kind of it was 606 million and it became nearly 200 million in 2001, so nearly a kind of two-third population is out from poverty then you have the sub-Saharan Africa, which has shown an increase in the poverty line, and again the development goals talks about decreasing the people who are less than who are surviving at a wage of less than one dollar per day to nearly half of the existing numbers.

So let say if it is presently hundred they aim to bring it down to 50 by 2015. so that՚s one of the Millennium development goals that was set up and based on that seen advancements in the poverty line.

People Living on $ 1/Day (1980 – 2001)

People Living under Dollar 1 a Day

Now this diagram shows the people living in poverty line are below the poverty line which was defined internationally. So as you can see there has been a drastic decrease in the number in case of China which has shown a sharp declined.

You have sub-Sahara Africa matters which is increase, East Asian Pacific and South Asia are also doing better, however the most developments in a human resource was seen in case of china and East Asia and the pacific regions.

Anti-Poverty Measures

  • Promotion of Economic Growth – Opportunities for investment in human development, better education, better agriculture
  • Targeted Anti-Poverty Programs
  • National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005: Provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, extended to 600 districts with 1/3rd women. If no employment in 15 days – get daily unemployment allowance
  • National Food for Work Program (NFWP) , 2004: 150 most backward districts & is for rural poor for wage employment and manual unskilled work. 100 % centrally sponsored scheme and food grain are provided free of cost to the states

The next is Anti-Poverty measures, now definitely the best way is to provide employment once you have a kind of employment there is a security and that security will definitely bring more of kind of economic growth and get people out of the poverty trap.

So you have better education better agriculture and more investment in the human resource that is required as a result there were many antipoverty programs that were started the common ones that will be discussing today are the first one the NREGA that is the national rural employment Guarantee that provides 100 days of guaranteed employment to every rural household in the 200 districts and later it was extended to 600 district and it sought to expand further but this tells that if you do not get employment within 15 days there would be a kind of daily unemployment allowance that could be provided.

The next is a national food for work program that talks about the 150 most backward districts and providing people food in lieu of the work they do would be the kind of program. It would be the 100 % centrally sponsored.

  • Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) , 1993: Create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns
  • Rural Employment Generation Program (REGP) , 1995: Create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns with 25 lakh new jobs
  • Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) , 1999: Bring assisted poor families above the poverty line by organizing them into self-help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.
  • Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) , 2000: Assistance to states for basic services such as primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.
  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)

The next is Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana in 1993 it aimed at creating self-employment and educated unemployed youth then you have rural employment Guarantee program in 1995 again aimed at self-employment so as you can see most of the problems of the poverty or the anti-poverty drives are have a base in the employment and the job creation.

The next is Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana in 1999 it again assisted poor to get them above the poverty line and it was a kind of mixed help from bank credit and government subsidy that was provided. Finally you have the Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana in 2000 which provided the basic health and primary education facility. Then you have the Antyodaya Anna Yojana and so on.

Challenges Ahead

  • Providing health care
  • Education
  • Job
  • Security for all
  • Gender equality

However the spite of the measures that have been taken place you have still many challenges that are ahead so providing health care to each and every person at an affordable price, providing free and compulsory education not only for the primary as it is presenting but even for the higher education and college education the upper primary then they have the middle education and finally the college education providing job and security to all and bringing all the genders at equality above all dignity for poor is the main aim for the anti-poverty measures or the measures that the government is undertaking.

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