NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 4: Food Security in India Economy Complete Notes Part 2

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Food Security in India


  • High incidence of poverty, tribal and remote areas

  • Regions more prone to natural disasters

  • Uttar Pradesh (E & SE), Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra - largest number of food insecure people in India

Now what would be the incidences first of all there would be high rate of poverty - the tribal and the remote areas would be affected the regions that are more prone to natural disasters. You would have more incidences of food insecurity in India you have certain pockets like south and southeast with the Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha, west Bengal parts of MP and Maharashtra where you have kind of food insecurity which is a major concern.


  • Expression of poverty

  • Chronic: inadequate diet in terms of quantity and quality – low income group

  • Seasonal: food growing and harvesting cycles – common in rural (seasonal variation) & urban (causal labour)

Poorest african and poorest states of countries

Poorest African and Poorest States of Countries

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Now let’s come on to another term that is hunger, hunger I can say is an expression of poverty that means you have a kind of hunger index that could determine the out of poverty or the level of poverty of any nation if you look at to graph we can see 26 of the poorest nations of Africa contributed to 410 million fewer populations however nearly 8 states in India contribute to 421 million poor population that means in India poverty and hunger is definitely a prime concern.

Now this hunger can be categorized as to the chronic hunger and the seasonal hunger. In the chronic hunger, hunger is the inadequacy of the diet or the supply of food it mainly occurs in the low income state society however under seasonal hunger we talk about the growing food growing the crops harvesting the crops are the laborers in the agricultural sector get employment only during the time you have agricultural activities that is going on like harvesting or growing of the crops.

However, the other seasons they do not have employment and there is a kind of seasonal hunger that occurs again in urban areas as we mentioned there is casual laborers so they do not get employment throughout the year as a result there is a again a cycle phase of hunger that occurs.

Global Hunger Index

  • International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) calculates GHI scores - Components

  • Undernourishment: Proportion of undernourished as percent of the population (reflect population with insufficient caloric intake)

  • Child wasting: Proportion of children under 5 years who suffer from wasting (low weight for their height, reflect acute under-nutrition)

  • Child stunting: Proportion of children under 5 years who suffer from stunting (low height for their age, reflecting chronic under-nutrition)

  • Child mortality: the mortality rate of children under the age of five

  • 2015 revision: Replaces child underweight as two indicators of child under-nutrition as child wasting and child stunting

Now international food policy research institute works on to calculate the global hunger index it has to marketed four categories under which it classifies all the components on which based on which it decides the hunger rating of the nations there are 118 nations that have been created as of 2016. The first criteria is undernourishment that means the amount of nutrition that one should get and one is actually getting and the amount that one is getting is below the standardized level.

The next is child wasting that is children under the age of 5 years who are less in their weight as compared to the normal weight of that range. Child shunting is a kind of lower height slower growth in again under children below five years and finally child mortality is the mortality in the age group of five up to the age group of five. In 2015 there was a revision where child and the weight was replaced by two separate categories that is child wasting and child standing. So till 2015 there were just three categories mortality, underweight and undernourishment. However in 2016 it was bifurcated into two that is child wasting and child stunting as separate categories.