NCERT Class 9 Economics Chapter 4: Food Security in India Economy Completes Notes Part 3 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Food Security in India

GHI - India

GHI in India
  • 2015: India ranked 97 out of 118 nations
  • Below India: Extremely poor African countries - Niger, Chad, Ethiopia and Sierra Leone & 2 India՚s neighbours: Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • Above India: Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and China

In India 2015 ranking India stands 97 out of the 118 that means in India hunger is really a cause of concern. The only nations that were below India was extremely poor nations of Africa that is Niger, Chad, Ethiopia and Sierra Leone and only 2 of them India՚s neighbours that is Afghanistan and Pakistan.

However four of the Indian nation that is the Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and China did much better as compared to India as is we look out to the India՚s rating over the years it has been on a decreasing trend that means we have worked the higher and more amount of hunger problems so we have definitely worked on to improvement but still there is lot more to go in 1992. There were only 96 countries that were assist an Indian stand at a 76 position in 2016. India stood at the 97th position.

India and Its Neighbours
Hunger in India

Now here is how we compare the score with the other nations. So you have various countries under various scores that are given. India which has a kind of very high score that means it has a kind of very poor situation in terms of hunger as compared to other countries and if we look on to the India under the four categories that have been given another GHI the global hunger index.

We can see the in India the worst of lies in the categories of stunted children less than five years so that is the major cause of concern.


  • Hunger: Distress associated with lack of food. FAO defines food deprivation, or undernourishment, as the consumption of food that is not sufficient to provide the minimum amount of dietary energy that each individual requires to live a healthy and productive life, given his or her sex, age, stature and physical activity level.
  • Undernutrition: Beyond calories and signifies deficiencies in any or all of the following: energy, protein, or essential vitamins and minerals. Due to inadequate intake of food in terms of either quantity or quality, poor utilization of nutrients due to infections or other illnesses, or a combination of these factors.
  • Malnutrition: Undernutrition overnutrition (problems of unbalanced diets, too many calories, with or without low intake of micronutrient-rich foods) .

Now there are three definitions that we must be aware of while we talk about food security and hunger or poverty is one of the major issues so first is hunger the next is under nutrition and malnutrition, malnutrition means a deviation from a normal nutrition pattern that means this deviation can be either towards the positive side or towards the negative side that means there can be problem of under-nutrition or there can be problem of over-nutrition which can be in form of obesity in young children so malnutrition is any deviation from a standard normal so you have under nutrition and over nutrition both as part of malnutrition.

Under nutrition means deficiency in any of the forms of calories, vitamins, minerals and hunger is the directly associated with the lack of availability of food and this is one of the definition that has been given by the Food And Agriculture Organization to explain exact terms is hunger.

  • India is aiming at Self-sufficiency in Foodgrains since Independence
  • Green revolution – Wheat followed by rice, highest in Punjab & Haryana
  • Buffer Stock: Stock of foodgrains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation of India (FCI)
  • Minimum Support Price: Farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops, declared before sowing season – incentive
  • Issue Price: Distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price lower than the market price.

Now let՚s go on to India, India has been striving hard to provide food security to its citizens there are various ways in which government has been working the one of the most important measures that had been worked around post-independence was the concept of green revolution that first came in to rice, wheat and then later on it was expanded into rice and both of these worked and try to provide increase the production of food grains.

However the best work out to states were Punjab and Haryana. Now there are few terms that will understand first and then we will see how the buffer stock and public distribution system works.

What happens is you have a kind of agricultural crop that is growing in the region so what does government do? Government tries to procure these agricultural crops from the farmers and keep it other stock with the government with the Food Corporation of India and that is stock is known as a buffer stock.

Now when government is taking this crop from the farmers it is taking it at a certain price and this price assures the farmer even if there is not enough rainfall or not enough cultivation farmer would get a minimum support price which we call as MSP from the government that way government tries to incentivize the farmers.

Now again this is the price at which government is procuring so let՚s see if I am government and I am getting the food grains at this price so that is the minimum support price however once I have the stock with me I took it at minimum support price I have a buffer stock with me. Now I would try to distribute it to different people and when I am trying to distribute it to different people the price and which I would issue it would be known as the Issue Price. Issue price is the price at which government provides the food grain to other people and that is a kind of standardized or I could say kept at a very nominal rate and that is what is known as the issue price. All these together help in the working of the public distribution system.

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