NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development Completes Notes Part 2

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Resources & Development

Resource Classification

  • Based on origin

    • Biotic

    • Abiotic

  • Based on exhaustibility

    • Renewable

    • Non-renewable

  • Based on ownership

    • Individual – plantation, pastures

    • Community – grazing ground, village ponds

    • National – road, canal, railways

    • International - EEZ

  • Based on status of development

    • Potential – found but unutilized – Raj & Guj (wind and solar)

    • Developed - technology and feasibility

    • Stock – no technology to harness them - hydrogen

    • Reserves - subset of stock used with existing technology – water in dam or forest is reserve now but can be used in future

So sometimes it’s kind of direct question as to understanding the various classification for resources the first classification talks about the origin so it is either biotic or abiotic, biotic means living and abiotic means nonliving, if it is based on our exhaustibility. We say renewable resources are non-renewable resources as we have already seen in the chart before now based on ownership it can be individual it can be personal resources for example partial land or a farmland which is owned by me for example, it can be a community ownership whereas it’s kind of grazing land which is owned by the local people of the community or the village pond.

National ownership the national roads, railways, canals, dams and finally the international ownership so in case of India or any other country you have the costal boundaries and the exclusive economic zone so that is the ease so those are international ownership.

Finally based on the status of development, I can say the resources are potential that means they are found at given place but they are not utilized completely for example in Rajasthan and Gujarat we know there is ample of wind power in Gujarat and solar power in Rajasthan but that is potential and it’s not being utilized at its optimum level then you have developed resources which we know are there and they exist and with means of technology and feasibility we are using those resources

The next is stock, stock means there is no technology to harness such resources they exist in the nature but we do not have given set of technology to use those for example hydrogen. So hydrogen is available all around us but we do not have the technology to use that resource and therefore we call such resources as stocks. Stocks and reserves are important and the difference between the two is further important so reserve is a subset of stock which can be used with given technology, so for example you have water in a dam so that water can be used to generated the hydroelectric power, so that is a stock but with the existing technology or given technology I can use stock and we call such stock as reserve.

Problem of Resource Development

  • Depletion of resources

  • Accumulation of resources

  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources

Now what are the given set of problems that a resource development phase, first of all is the depletion of resources, so the non-renewable resources are getting depleted at a faster pace then you have Accumulation of resources, so if there are too many resources that are being accumulated it creates problem for development so we need to have a kind of define boundaries for developmental processes, you have kind of In discriminable exploitation of resources that means they are used at much higher extent.

Remedial Measures

  • Equitable distribution of resources

  • Sustainable development

  • Rio de Janeiro Summit, 1992 – Agenda 21 – combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation

What are the remedial measure so the first is if we are overusing the resources the first is to curb the resource use on a kind of equal distribution of resources so you have equitable distribution then you have sustainable development that means using a given set of resource in such a manner that it is still available for the future generations to come. So using the resources at a given rate such that the future generation can further use the resources as known as sustainable development.

Under the Rio de Janeiro Summit, 1992 there was Agenda 21 that was passed and that talked about combating the environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation, so that was some of the remedial steps that were used for resource mobilization.