NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development Completes Notes Part 3

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Resources & Development

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Resource Planning in India

  • Identification and inventory of resources

  • Evolving planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up

  • Matching resource development plans with overall national development plans

  • Rich resource regions – attraction for colonies

Now in India if we see or we look at into the historical background we will see that there was colonial exploitation only in the resource rich regions as a result there was plantation agriculture’s that started so all the regions which were resource rich or well-endowed with resources had a kind of colonial exploitation which was much higher in compared to other areas.

Now starting from the colonial advent you have the various resource planning that has been working in India the most important is identifying the specific resources and creating an inventory for those evolving a structure with good technology so as to use the resources and then the most important thing is matching the resource with the development so there should be definite development if there is a certain set of resource that is available so matching the resources and development is another important aspect.

Resource Conservation

  • There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed

  • 1968 – Club of Rome – resource conservation

  • 1974 – Schumacher - book “Small is Beautiful

  • 1987- Brundtland Commission Report – Sustainable Development - Our Common Future

Now when it comes to conserving the resources there are various things on various steps that have been taken in 1968 club of Rome who had established or worked around resources conservation later on 1974 Schumacher had written a book ‘Small is Beautiful’ and finally 1987 and a Brundtland Commission Report they gave sustainable development concept or sustainable development as a common future so these are some of the important works done for resource conservation.

Land Resource

  • 43% plains – Agriculture

  • 30% - Mountains

  • 27% Plateau – Minerals and fossils

  • 3.28 million sq km – land use data for only 93% is known (rest in Assam & PoK)

  • Net sown area – 80% in Punjab & Haryana; 10% in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur & A & N. Is.

  • Forest Area – 33% as per National Forest Policy, 1952

  • Wasteland – rocky, arid and desert lands

  • 95% basic needs form land

Now will come on to the one major resource for this lecture that is the land resource and the soil will be working around other resources in the next coming chapter now the first resources is the land resource now land resource is one the basic resources you have nearly ¾ of the water and ¼ of the land area if we look on to the global terms of that ¼ you are nearly 43% is plan area, 30% is mountain and the remaining is plateau in the plain you have optimal the plain are the optimal areas for agricultural production plateau are good for minerals and fossil deposits. Now of the total land area that India has only 93% is knows so rest of that is an Assam and PoK occupied Kashmir which is not considered or not evaluated.

Now before we start with further classification there are two basic terms the gross cropped area and the net cropped area or net sown area if we say. Now what is the different between the two I have given patch of land on this patch of land there are three crops, let’s say one is summer crop, one is spring crop and one is winter crop. Now all these three crops you have the same area that is 500sq.m., so this same patch of land would be counted thrice when it comes to gross cropped area because you are getting three crops on the same piece of land and in three different seasons in one years so all the crops are grown in one year would be counted towards the gross cropped area.

However the net sown area or the net cropped are would be just a single counting of this because you have only one area on which you are growing the crops, despite you are having three crops on the same patch of land we call it as a net sown area so net sown area is highest in Punjab and Haryana which accounts to nearly 80% lowest in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur that’s the northeastern states and Andaman and Nicobar Island as for the national forests falls in 1952, 33% of the total land area should be covered under forest however we are still working to achieve this goal.