NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development Completes Notes Part 4

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Resources & Development

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Image shows Differents types of land

Image Shows Differents Types of Land

Now there are various kinds of land uses that exist the most important thing is some of the land is wasteland. That means it’s either rocky it’s either desert area or it’s a kind of marshy land which is not suitable for cultivation besides that you have other forms of wasteland which is water eroded which has been eroded by water it is degraded by forest it’s either saline and alkaline, mainly found in the arid areas and finally you have the land eroded by wind. So these are the contribution with highest contribution being for the water eroded land.

Land Utilization

  • Forests

  • Land not available for cultivation

    • Barren and waste land

    • Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.

  • Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)

    • Permanent pastures and grazing land,

    • Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area)

    • Culturable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years)

  • Fallow lands

    • Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year)

    • Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years)

  • Net sown area: Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area

Now if we talk the land utilization we can divide the land classify the land use under various headings the first is some of the land can be forest so you have the forest as the first classification, the next is the land which is not available for cultivation so it includes either the barren land or the waste land or the land that is used for non-agricultural we use like buildings railways roads canals so all those are non-agricultural purpose so all the waste land and non-agricultural land would fall under land not available for cultivation that is as per the name given so this land is not use for cultivation.

Now other than uncultivated land which excludes the fallow land you have Permanent pastures which are the grazing areas then you have land under tree crops, which does not includes the net sown areas and finally the culturable waste land which is left unculturable for more than five years consecutively so you have five agricultural years under which that land has not been used for agricultural purpose. So we call such a land as Culturable waste land and finally you have the fallow land, fallow land are kept open for more than one year so we call those as current fallow and other then current fellow are those which are left uncultivated for one to five years and finally we already understood the difference between the gross cropped area and the net sown area so these are land utilization.

Table Shows General Land Use Categories
Table shows General Land use Categories

General Land use Categories 1960-61

General Land use Categories 2002-03

Forest

Culturable Waste Land

Barren and waste land

Fallows other than Current Fallow

Area under non-agricultural use

Current Fallow

Permanent Pastures and Grazing land

Net Sown Area

Area under misc. - Tree crop and Groves

Now in 1960-61 there were the following categories that were given for land use however in 2002 and 2003 the categories changed so under 60 the categories was forest barren land, area under nonagricultural use, area under Permanent Pastures and Grazing land and finally area under miscellaneous use the tree crops and grooves under 2002-03 you have Culturable Waste Land, Fallows land other than Current Fallow lands, Current Fallow lands and the Net Sown Area. So there was change in the classification of land use with the years.

Land Degradation

  • Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa – Mining

  • Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra – Overgrazing

  • Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh - Overirrigation

Now across India if you look there are various reasons because of which the land is degraded or the quality of the land is deteriorating, now if we look on to the northern belt that’s the Punjab, Haryana and the western Uttar Pradesh it’s mainly because of over irrigation or over supply of water, however in parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat the major problem is Overgrazing by animals and finally in the Deccan plateau belt or the central highland you have the Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa the main causes mining activity so all these three activities are the major cause of land degradation in India.

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