NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development Completes Notes Part 5

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Resources & Development

Mitigate Land Degradation

  • Afforestation

  • Proper management of grazing

  • Planting of shelter belts of plants

  • Control on over grazing

  • Stabilization of sand dunes

  • Management of waste lands

  • Control of mining activities

  • Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes

Now coming on to how we can resolve or how we can mitigate the problem of land degradation the first is cropping more plants providing a permanent, proper management of grazing activities providing shelter belts of plants that is the plants which act as windbreakers so then fast wind cannot destroy the crops then controlling the problem of overgrazzing by animals Stabilizing of sand dunes, so that the impact of sand dunes do not reach to the semi-arid area so for example let’s look at the map of India you have the thar desert here, now you have the Aravallis range and you have the passes in the Aravallis range, now what would happens, if there is no Stabilization of sand dunes this sand dunes will percolate from the thar desert to the eastern side from the marwad region to the mevad region of Rajasthan and that would create problem of desertification in the eastern edge of Aravallis however there is need to stabilize the sand dunes so that the impact of desert do not spread beyond the Aravallis. The next is managing the waste lands controlling the mining activities and proper disposal of industrial waste.

Soil Classification in India – Alluvial

  • Most widespread, north, river and deltas – Duars, Chao, Terai

  • Bangar – Old, more kankar nodules

  • Khadar – New, finer and fertile

  • Has potash, phosphoric acid and lime

  • Sugarcane, paddy, wheat

  • Intensively cultivated

  • Densely populated

Now coming back to the soil classification we have already covered soil classification separately in one of the lecture so we want to covering those with the maps here try to understand the basic concept of various kind of soils, now the first soil that we will be talking about Alluvial soil, Alluvial soil is a soil which is very good for agricultural now this soil is further classified under two heads the Bangar and the Khadar, the Bangar is the old soil is more kankar nodules or calcium modules. However khadar is a new soil which finer, which has smaller particle and is much fertile. Alluvial soil is rich and potash, phosphoric acid and lime as a result you have good growth of Sugarcane, paddy, wheat that is seen it is intensively cultivated in India because it mainly falls in the area. Where you have kind of dense population and that’s again one of the reason why you have kind of good cultivation here because of the higher cultivation in the soil, you have more people coming on to those areas and settling down for agricultural, it mainly seen in the northern areas also known as Duars, Chao, Terai region.

Black Soil

  • Black

  • Called regur soil

  • Good for cotton

  • Deccan and basaltic rock

  • Lava flow

  • Malwa, MP, Chhattisgarh

  • Fine Clay, can hold moisture

  • Rich in CaCO3, Mg, potash & lime

  • Poor in phosphorous

  • Deep cracks in hot weather

  • Sticky when wet

Now next is black soil which is also known as regur soil commonly seen in the Deccan plateau region which is made up of Lava, now there are various theories which say I wish talked about the origin of black soil however the most accepted theory talks about that black soil is of volcanic origin so it has mainly basaltic rocks and it is made up of lava flow the main regions where it drains is the Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh region it’s kind of fine clay, which can hold moisture it expands when it has water in it contracts under dry season. It is very rich in CaCO3, Mg, potash & lime. It is poor in phosphorous.

Now for objective purposes there are some times that equation which says black soil is poor is deficient in what and red soil is deficient in what and so on and so forth, so if it’s kind of objective question you need to remember each and every point that we have mentioned in detail.