NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development Completes Notes Part 6

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Resources & Development

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Red & Yellow Soil

  • On crystalline igneous rocks

  • In low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.

  • In Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern of mid-Ganga plain, piedmont zone of Western Ghats.

  • Red due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks

  • Yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form

Now next soil here is red and yellow soil. It is found on the crystalline igneous rocks, so in the regions of low rainfall in eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau beyond the black soil you have the red and yellow soil that is commonly seen in parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern of mid-Ganga plain, piedmont zone of Western Ghats. This red color of the soil is due to the diffusion of the Iron which is present in the crystalline igneous rocks and once refused it gives the red color to the soil. However the same soil becomes yellow when it is hydrated with water, so you have the same soil when diffused with iron it gives red color and when hydrated with water it gives yellow color.

Laterite Soil

  • From Latin “later” meaning Brick

  • High rain & high temperature

  • Result of intense leaching due to rain

  • Low humus

  • Good for manure and fertilizers

  • Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, MP, hilly areas of Orissa and Assam

  • Red laterite soils - Tamil Nadu, AP and Kerala - Cashewnuts

The next is laterite soil. The word “later” means Brick. So this soil is common in the areas of high rainfall and high temperature it’s due to his intense leaching activity of the rainfall so this soil does not hold enough of humus it is good for manure and fertilizers commonly seen in the southern parts and the coastal area so you have Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, MP, hilly areas of Orissa and Assam. A modification of laterite soil, which is red laterite soil, is seen in the regions of Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, and this red laterite soil specifically is good for Cashewnuts.

Arid Soil

  • Red to Brown

  • Sandy and saline

  • Dry climate, high temp., fast evaporation

  • Lower horizons with kankar nodules

The next is arid soil, which is seen in the arid areas of Thar Desert specifically in India it’s common to the areas of dry climate where you have high temperature and fast evaporation, so it’s red to brown in color and there is lower horizons it do have kankar nodules as seen in the bangar soil which is a kind of alluvial soil.

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