NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources & Development Completes Notes Part 7 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 1: Resources and Development (Examrace) | English | CBSE

Forest Soil

  • Hills and mountains
  • Loam and silt in valley sides
  • Coarse in upper slopes
  • In snow covered areas – acidic with low humus
  • Soil in lower valleys and alluvial fans - fertile

Finally you have forest soil which is mainly seen in the hilly areas and the mountainous areas it has a Loam and silt deposits which is seen towards the valley side, you have the hills and the valley towards the valley you have Loam and silt soil however towards the upper edge the soil is much more cores or much more bigger particle as compare to the lower regions where the particles are finer in the areas which are covered by the snow the soil is mainly acidic with very low humus content and in the lower valleys further lower valleys beyond this you have kind of alluvial soil which is highly fertile in nature.

Soil Erosion

  • Deforestation
  • Over-grazing
  • Construction and mining
  • Running water makes channels – gullies
  • Land unfit for cultivation – Badlands (Chambal)
  • Top soil is washed away – sheet erosion

Now despite we have talked about the various types of soil, soil erosion is a big problem soil erosion means moving away of the soil with one of the forces of nature that could be wind, water and air so what happens is how soil erosion is promoted so if you are cutting home trees, trees will not be able to bind the soil as result there would be erosion of soil there would be run away of soil so over grazing all of these would leave the soil loose as a result there would be erosional activities that would get strengthened so Construction and Mining Running waters then you have bed land areas which is the land and fit for cultivation on the top soil washed away is known as sheet erosion from among the soil erosion.

So, you have gullies, erosion which take place due to running water and sheet erosion which takes up and takes place due to the running water when it erodes away the topmost layer.


  • Contour ploughing – decrease flow – along contour lines
  • Terrace cultivation – restrict erosion (W. & C. Himalayas)
  • Strip Cropping – large fields to strips
  • Shelter belts – rows of trees – stabilize sand dunes
  • People՚s management – Sukhomanjari village & Jhabua

Now we have talked about erosion of the soil we need to understand how we can conserve the soil, now there are various ways under which we can conserve the soil the first is creating Shelter belt, so these shelter belts would prevent the wind from eroding the soil so there would be rows of trees that would be planted and it would also stabilize the problem of sand dunes then you have peoples management activity as seen in Sukhomanjari village & Jhabua so these two are classic example of people՚s initiative where they have worked around soil conservation then you have strip cropping where you have a large peel and you have kind of cropping pattern that occurs in the strips then you have terrace cultivation that occurs in steps so you have terrace formation that could be seen as the terrace it is restrict erosion commonly seen in the hilly terrain of western and central Himalayas again you are contour ploughing so you have contour lines, that you have kind of and towards the end of the land you have create contour also you have it works around with each of the contour line that could be seen so you have 100 degree contour to 200 degree contour and so on.

So, with each contour you have a kind of flowing activity that goes on so it decreases the flow of water and works around the contours line as we said.

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