NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 2: Forest & Wildlife Resources Completes Notes Part 4

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Forest & Wildlife Resources

  • Normal - cattle, sal, pine, rodents

  • Endangered - black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion tailed macaque, sangai

  • Vulnerable - blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin

  • Rare - Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill

  • Endemic - Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

  • Extinct – Asiatic cheetah world’s fastest land mammal - Acinonyx jubantus – extinct in 1952; pink head duck

  • Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallachiana) – HP & Arun. P. – taxol from barks, needles and roots – largest selling anticancer drug - threatened

Now here are some of the species we have which are normal species as we said you have pigeon, ducks, cattle, sal, pine, rodents so all these are abundant species or we can say they are least concerted species then you have endangered species which includes India rhino, lion tailed macaque, sangai then you have the wild ass in Kutch region the Vulnerable species includes blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin some of the rare species that are seen in India are important again so you have brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill, you have species endemic species means they are specific to a particular area for example teal are found in Andaman, then you have pigeon which are known as Nicobar pigeon founded Nicobars, wild pig of and Andaman and mithun in Arunachal Pradesh.

Now among the extinct species is the Asiatic cheetah, this was considered as the world’s fastest animal on earth and then it became extent in 1952, again another extinct animal is a pink headed duck, important case study that is mentioned is of Himalayan Yew, Himalayan Yew is also known as Texas wallichiana it’s found in Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh the taxol is released from the barks, needles and roots of this plant and this is used as an anticancer medicine this plant is highly threatened now and the extract from this plant the textual that is extracted from this plant is among the world’s largest seller.

Damage to Forests

  • During colonial period or expansion – enrichment plantation

  • Teak monoculture has damaged the natural forest in South India

  • Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) plantations in the Himalayas have replaced the Himalayan oak (Quercius sp.) and Rhododendron forests

  • Agricultural expansion (b/w 1950 to 1980 – 26,200 sq. km. area converted to agricultural area)

  • Developmental projects – 5000 sq. km. cleared for river valley project

  • Mining – Buxa tiger reserve in W. Bengal – dolomite mining

  • Grazing and fuel wood collection

  • Marginalizes indigenous population – Women affected more

  • Droughts and deforestation induced floods it’s the poor the hardest

Now the next is damage to forest the damage to forest in India has started with the colonial expansion so since there was a colonial expansion there was enrichment for a kind of plantation drying so more of the resources were moved or allocated for a kind of plantation cultivation that is cultivation of the crops that could need more money.

However there was less focus given to the existing forest much of the forest was cleared in name of establishing railways in name of establishing road line and networks as results what happened was a huge amount of huge proportion of forest got cleared up and there was significant decrease in the forest level.

Again there has been damage to the natural forest and south India by monoculture practices of teak, monoculture practices means cropping just a single crop at a given time so what happens is it depletes a specific nutrients from the soil as a result the soil becomes deficient in a certain nutrient and it is not able to help or support other crops in that region.

The next is chir pine which is plantation in Himalaya have replaced the Himalayan Oak and Rhododendron forest, so chir pine is again kind of invasive species that we could say, now agricultural expansion between 1950 to 1980 expanded to nearly 26,000 square kilometers and that means that much area was converted from forest land to agricultural land as a result the forest area was decreased so one was agricultural expansion.

The second as we said was development project which is started or initiated during the colonial period, so nearly 50,000 square kilometer of the land was recently covered cleared for river valley projects so again any developmental project comes at a cost of clearing the forest area. The mining activities have affected the Buxa tiger reserve in West Bengal, the main mining there was dolomite mining again over grazing by animals fuel wood collection for by the local values of the local communities then because of the clearing of forests what is happening? The indigenous population the tribal groups that are dwelling into that region are getting marginalized, so they have lesser space to leave as a result the number of indigenous groups and their community is decreasing again among the marginalized groups the most affected at woman, who worked around with forest as the main sources of their daily livelihood. Droughts and deforestation which is again human induced so there are kind of human-induced droughts as well as natural droughts and then deforestation mainly governed by human activities.

So deforestation leads to floods and that again affects the forest area because of the deforestation what happens, there are no roots that are present to bind the soil so when the water will flow it will take away the top soil or soil erosion will take place and there would be area which would be kind of flood induced.