NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 3: Water Resources Completes Notes Part 1

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Water Resources

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Why? – Water Wars??

“Water, water everywhere nor a drop to drink”

  • 3/4th World is water – water is renewable

  • Why global water scarcity? (by 2025 – 2 billion without water)

  • 96.5% in oceans

  • 2.5% as freshwater – (of it 70% in icecaps & 30% as groundwater)

  • India gets 4% of global rain & ranks 133 in water availability per person per annum

  • Total renewable water resources of India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum

Let’s start with a famous mariner saying that says “Water, Water everywhere nor a drop to drink’ and this saying explain that if you are within the Ocean you have water all around you but that is not fit for drinking so most of the water that you have there is predominantly salty, now if you don’t want to the world scenario you have ¼ section that is land and the remaining ¾ portion that is water.

However this water is a renewable sources of this ¾ water that 75% water that is present 96.5% lines within the Ocean bodies and we have nearly 2.5% of the water which occurs as freshwater of this 2.5% most of it that is nearly 70% is trapped as icecaps in the polar areas and only 30% occurs as ground water and this is the water we are able to use so if we talk in terms of proportion we have very near bigger proportion of water that is available for human use again it is estimated by 2025 there would be nearly 2bilion people who would be without water if the scenario goes on at a similar rate pace.

Now India receives 4% of the global rain and ranks 133 in the water availability per person per year. India is however trying to improve its ranking by means of various water harvesting techniques that we will understand later in this class. Again of the total renewable resources India accounts for nearly 1897 sq. km per annum.

Why Scarcity?

  • Not due to unequal distribution of rain (dry areas of Rajasthan)

  • Over- exploitation

  • Excessive use

  • Unequal access to water among different social groups

  • Large population – more demand for water (domestic & agri. use)

  • Scarcity even in water abundant areas (like cities)

  • Industrialization & Urbanization (ground water pumping devices)

  • Bad quality of water – polluted by chemicals, fertilizers & pesticides

  • Water stress - when water availability is less than 1,000 m3 per person per day (by Falken Mark)

Now moving on you have why you do we need to understand the problem of water scarcity and where the exactly the problem lies. Now most of you if I would ask this question you would say definitely within India you have rain surplus areas and rain deficit area so let’s see the arid in the semi-arid area would have motor deficiency however the areas of north east the areas of indo-Gangetic plain would be the areas of water surplus but this is not reality you might be familiar with Cherrapunji, Myanswaram these are the areas of heaviest rainfall despite of the fact, you have Shillong which is hardly 120Km. on near about Cherrapunji is still this place suffers from acute the water shortages.

What is the reason such shortage? Despite you have abundant rain fall in this region you have areas where you have water shortage now this is accrue to the following reasons first of all over exploitation of the resources then you have excessive use of the resources with growing urbanization and industrialization you have more water that is use for the industrial and the urban activities you have groundwater pumping devices that are established and this extracts the ground water creating grey zones in most of the areas of Punjab, Haryana, Northern Rajasthan are facing kind of gray zone areas because the water table level has gone deep that means you have problem of water scarcity not only in the areas where you have rainfall deficient but this also occurs in the area where you have abundant rainfall and that is mainly or predominantly due to human intervention so you have large population so since people are known there is more demand for water there is more use in domestic and agricultural activities all this account for scarcity of water even in the areas which are water abundant.

Now Falken mark was one of the pioneers who explained this in terms of water stress and he said if the water availability is less than1,000 m3 per person per day we call that as a water stress and if there is water stress that remains for a prolong period there would be phases of acute drought and famines that could occur in a region.

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