NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 3: Water Resources Completes Notes Part 2

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Water Resources

Multi-Purpose River Projects & Integrated Water Resources Management

  • Historical – dams of stone, canal for irrigation

  • 1st Century B.C.: Sringaverapuram near Allahabad - water harvesting system channeling the flood water of Ganga.

  • Chandragupta Maurya: Dams, lakes and irrigation systems were built.

  • Irrigation works: Kalinga, (Orissa), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), etc.

  • 11th Century: Bhopal Lake - one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.

  • 14th Century: Tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to Siri Fort area.

Now the next important things that India has been leading is the multi-purpose river valley projects and the various integrated water resources management techniques. When we talk about multi-purpose river valley projects Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru call these are samples of modern India that means they are not only since the name suggests it’s multi-purpose they are not only providing water sources they are helping in irrigation and all the allied agricultural activities.

We will see later how it’s works, let first understand or work around a historical idea of how water management practices were done in India. If we talk on to the first century B.C. prior to the first century B.C. let’s move on to the various civilization the Harappa civilization and the Mohenjo-Daro civilization. You had water tanks, there was kind of water storage that used to takes place in the 1st century you have the Sringaverapuram near Allahabad and this place is known for a its unique water harvesting system and the water in this region was harvested or channelized from Ganga river than the during the time of Chandragupta Maurya there were numerous dams lakes and irrigation system that were built.

Some of the Pioneer example of irrigation of the medieval an ancient India are Kalinga in Odisha, Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh, Bennur in Karnataka, Kolhapur in Maharashtra. During the 11th century Bhopal Lake was built as this is one of the largest artificial lake of its time during the 14th century there were tanks established and Hauz Khas, Delhi and this done by Iltutmish when he was supplying water to the Siri Fort area.

Dams – Temples of Modern India (JL Nehru)

Temples of Modern India

Temples of Modern India

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Now let’s talk about the temples of modern India or the multi-purpose projects so the basic idea is to impound water to store water that water would be used to irrigate the fields and besides irrigating it would be used for hydroelectric power generation, it would provide water to the nearby areas for domestic agricultural and industrial use.

It would help in controlling the flood by channelizing the excess water or storing or impounding it. It would also be these areas would act as areas of recreation, it would provide Inland navigation on boating and also near to the multipurpose project you would have fish breeding that could be practiced.