NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 3: Water Resources Completes Notes Part 5

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Water Resources

Alternative – Water Harvesting System

  • Hill and mountainous regions - Diversion channels like ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ of Western Himalayas for agriculture.

  • Rooftop rain water harvesting - store drinking water in Rajasthan – to tanks/tankas (1st rain not collected) – Rainwater or Palar Pani - purest water form; also in Shillong

  • Shillong so close to Mawsynram – still acute water shortage

  • Flood plains of Bengal – Inundation channels to irrigate their fields.

  • Arid and semi-arid regions - agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures – water collected and soil moistened - ‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in Alwar.

  • In Rajasthan – rooftop harvesting declined by Rajasthan Canal

  • Tamil Nadu - first and the only state in India to make roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state.

Now what could be an alternative way of harvesting water? The best way to harvest water would be preserving the water that is naturally coming from the rainfall. so there are various way, one of the common ways that you might have heard of is the Rooftop harvesting, under the Rooftop harvesting what happens?

Image of Rooftop Harvesting and Tanks

Image of Rooftop Harvesting and Tanks

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You try to collect the rainwater that occurs you just leave out the first rainfall and then collect the remaining water on the rooftop this water passes through a pipeline into the tank and finally the extra water is supplied to an underground storage tank or you also called those as tankas in the common language.

So these are some of the basic water harvesting technique or most commonly used water harvesting techniques in the parts of dry areas mainly in the areas of Rajasthan, we also call this rain water as Palar Pani that is purest form of water that we can get again the same mechanism as we talked about previously is now being used in Shillong because Shillong is facing acute water shortage as we talked a due to the over exploitation of the water resources.

There are other ways for example in the mountainous region what is happening is you have the diversion channels which are known as ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ and these are commonly built to divert the extra water. Again in the Flood plains of Bengal you have Inundation channels that are being built up and these channels irrigate the nearby fields.

Arid and semi-arid areas you have agricultural fields which are converted into water harvesting storage structures they are commonly known as ‘khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in Alwar. These has been one of the major projects of Rajendra singh under which he runs an NGO and there are numerous rumors that has been made in that area and these are providing good agriculture to the farmers in the region because of rain water harvesting.

So predominantly you have rooftop harvesting that is common however in the areas of Rajasthan with the construction of Indira Gandhi canal you have a diversion from rooftop harvesting to canal irrigation this canal irrigation further please consequences of salinization and water logging issues that came up with the Indira Gandhi canal construction. Finally Tamil Nadu is the first of the only state in India to make rooftop harvesting systems, compulsory for all the houses in this state.